Synthèse d'une cornée artificielle à base de collagène I

Abstract : In view to generate artificial corneas, dense transparent collagen type-I scaffolds were synthesized exploiting the intrinsic liquid crystals properties of collagen molecules. 3 mg/mL collagen solutions in 500 mM acetic acid were dialyzed against a solution of precise concentrations in acetic and hydrochloric acid. When concentrated, solution provided a liquid-crystal organization resembling plywood, which is the organization of the collagen fibrils in the cornea. This was verified by polarized light and second harmonic generation microscopy experiments. In parallel these collagen solutions were also concentrated by centrifugation-filtration up to 90 mg/mL. The concentrated solutions were pressed into cornea-like shape and submitted to ammonia vapor in order to induce the fibrillogenesis of collagen. The result is a transparent dense fibrillated collagen matrix (transparency 90 %). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that fibrils kept the organization of the concentrated solution. Using a custom made device, mechanical tests showed that the Young modulus reached 900kPa. Human donor limbal explants were sewed on top of the scaffolds and cultured for 14 days. Optical microscopy and immunocytochemical analysis showed the development of an epithelium with characteristics of corneal epithelial cells. Preliminary experiments showed that keratocytes could be successfully inserted during the synthesis process. Thus, the results show the viability of the process of fabrication, and the following step is the in vivo experiment.
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Aurélien Tidu. Synthèse d'une cornée artificielle à base de collagène I. Matériaux. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066472⟩. ⟨tel-01508532⟩

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