Développement et mise en oeuvre de nouveaux matériaux adsorbants d'anions à base de ferrihydrite ou d'Hydroxydes Doubles Lamellaires intégrés dans un gel d'alginate

Abstract : Water pollution is currently a major concern from both health and environmental point of view. In order to solve this problem, efficient decontamination processes, economic and sustainable are constantly being developed and adsorption process remains a widely used method in the wastewater treatment. Many studies are devoted to the adsorption of cationic pollutants, but the development of suitable supports able to interact with the anionic contaminants is less discussed. The main objective of this work is to form two anionic adsorbents: the LDH (Layered Double Hydroxide) Mg/Al and two-line ferrihydrite. These adsorbents were associated with an alginate gel in order to produce composite materials that can be implemented in continuous reactors for the removal of anionic contaminants. The adsorption studies in batch reactor on LDH and ferrihydrite confirmed good removal efficiency for some anions. Ferrihydrite showed a higher adsorption capacity than LDH for the removal of inorganic anions. Increasing the Mg/Al ratio was favorable for the methyl orange (MO) adsorption, and an Mg/Al ratio of 3 (L3) was selected for the following work. Two protocols were evaluated for the integration of adsorbent into alginate gel: encapsulation and direct synthesis in the gel structure. The effect of crosslinking cation and the making of macroporosity were studied. The encapsulation of solids decreased slightly the adsorption ability of anions; however, the macroporosity counterbalances this negative effect of alginate gel. The MO adsorption studies with encapsulated beads showed that the increase of the bead size and the amount of solid in the beads were accompanied with a decrease in the adsorption capacity. The replacement of Ca2+ by Ba2+ strengthened the gel structure and improved the adsorption kinetics but decreased the adsorption capacity. The characterization of the support material prepared by direct synthesis in alginate gel showed a different structure from the expected materials (L3 or ferrihydrite), and therefore a different reactivity. The sorption mechanisms of various organic and inorganic anions were proposed for the studied adsorbents. The ferrihydrite/alginate beads prepared by encapsulation showed a good adsorption for all the anions used in this work, especially for inorganic anions (phosphate, chromate and arsenate); while those produced by direct synthesis in alginate gel removed only arsenate and phosphate essentially by a precipitation mechanism of the anions at the surface of the iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides. The sorption of MO in a continuous reactor showed that the increasing of the flow rate had a negative effect on sorption while higher initial concentration presented a favorable effect on the sorption, which is in accordance with results obtained in batch reactor. A desorption ratio of 30% for ferrihydrite/alginate macroporous beads (BPENFh-Ba) was observed in batch reactor with the possibility of reusing the adsorbent.This study confirms the performance and the possibility to use the composite materials of LDH or ferrihydrite in an alginate gel for the removal of anionic compounds contained in wastewater.
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Lulu Zhao. Développement et mise en oeuvre de nouveaux matériaux adsorbants d'anions à base de ferrihydrite ou d'Hydroxydes Doubles Lamellaires intégrés dans un gel d'alginate. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0105⟩. ⟨tel-01508515⟩

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