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Techniques avancées de formation de voies en imagerie ultrasonore et problèmes inverses associés

Abstract : Ultrasound (US) allows non-invasive and ultra-high frame rate imaging procedures at reduced costs. Cardiac, abdominal, fetal, and breast imaging are some of the applications where it is extensively used as diagnostic tool. In a classical US scanning process, short acoustic pulses are transmitted through the region-of-interest of the human body. The backscattered echo signals are then beamformed for creating radiofrequency(RF) lines. Beamforming (BF) plays a key role in US image formation, influencing the resolution and the contrast of final image. The objective of this thesis is to model BF as an inverse problem, relating the raw channel data to the signals to be recovered. The proposed BF framework improves the contrast and the spatial resolution of the US images, compared with the existing BF methods. To begin with, we investigated the existing BF methods in medical US imaging. We briefly review the most common BF techniques, starting with the standard delay-and-sum BF method and emerging to the most known adaptive BF techniques, such as minimum variance BF. Afterwards, we investigated the use of sparse priors in creating original two-dimensional beamforming methods for ultrasound imaging. The proposed approaches detect the strong reflectors from the scanned medium based on the well-known Bayesian Information Criteria used in statistical modeling. Furthermore, we propose a new way of addressing the BF in US imaging, by formulating it as a linear inverse problem relating the reflected echoes to the signal to be recovered. Our approach offers flexibility in the choice of statistical assumptions on the signal to be beamformed and it is robust to a reduced number of pulse emissions. At the end of this research, we investigated the use of the non-Gaussianity properties of the RF signals in the BF process, by assuming alpha-stable statistics of US images.
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Teodora Szasz. Techniques avancées de formation de voies en imagerie ultrasonore et problèmes inverses associés. Bio-informatique [q-bio.QM]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30221⟩. ⟨tel-01506629v2⟩

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