La compensation des impacts sociaux et écologiques pour les projets d'aménagement : acceptation, perceptions et préférences des acteurs du territoire. Application au projet de parc éolien en mer de la baie de Saint-Brieuc (Bretagne,France)

Abstract : In the context of a territory suffering from the negative impacts of an infrastructure declared of public utility, territorial compensation consists of a set of measure that aims to help maintaining the level of well-being of each and every individual as well as a desirable ecological state. This way, territorial compensation allows to balance between the global scale of the project, in which only the positive impacts are taken into account, and the local scale where both positive and negative externalities of the project are running. Initiated by a questioning on how such a public policy tool can be deployed at the heart of specific territories, the main objective of this PhD work is to characterize the expectation of local stakeholders towards the perceived impacts awaited from the instatement of a development project. More specifically, this work relies on an analytical approach centered on the study of the perception of the stakeholders of the Bay of St-Brieuc territory (Western Brittany, France), who are directly concerned by an offshore wind farm project. To reach suchaims, complementary qualitative and quantitative methods are used such as fuzzy cognitive mapping and choice experiment method. Using this kind of approaches allowed us to better define several keys for understanding how local stakeholders perceive the impacts of such a project and agree or not with compensation being an appropriate answer regarding the negative impacts of the project and consider the implementation of compensation in reference to their preferences towards different types of action – monetary incentives, public goods investments, ecological restoration. Our results show very heterogeneous perceptions in between the different stakeholders that can in a large part beexplained using the concept of Communities of Practice. Finally, when the principle of compensation is accepted by allthe stakeholders of a territory, the equivalency logical that determines the compensation expectations can be of three types: a territorial equivalency, in which the benefits of compensation must be shared by all inhabitants of the impacted territory; an ecological equivalency, in which the level of ecological functions or ecosystem services is maintained constant; and an equivalency based on economic values that must balance the loss of benefits underwent by some professional activities.
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Charlène Kermagoret. La compensation des impacts sociaux et écologiques pour les projets d'aménagement : acceptation, perceptions et préférences des acteurs du territoire. Application au projet de parc éolien en mer de la baie de Saint-Brieuc (Bretagne,France). Environnement et Société. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0126⟩. ⟨tel-01503862v2⟩

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