Modélisation, caractérisation et optimisation des procédés de traitements thermiques pour la formation d’absorbeurs CIGS

Abstract : Solar energy is promised to be a major actor in the future of energy production. Even if silicon based solar cells remain the main product their fabrication is energy consuming and requires heavy cover glass for protection, which reduce their development. For several years, commercial interest has shifted towards thin-film cells for which manufacturing time, large scale production, fabrication costs and weight savings are the main advantages. For thin film technology, a wide variety of materials can be used but chalcopyrite such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 is one of the most promising. The most current method used for chalcopyrite formation is co- evaporation but this process is very expensive and not well suitable for large scale production due to high vacuum requirements. One alternative solution described in this work consists of a two-step technology based on the sequential electro-deposition of a metallic precursor followed by a rapid reactive annealing. However to reach its full potential this technology needs a better understanding of the Ga incorporation mechanism and of the selenization/sulfurization step. This work focuses first on formation mechanisms through the study of several kinds of precursor. This knowledge is then used to explain and to optimize innovative annealing processes. This study is achieved by observing the impact of some process parameters using designs of experiment (DOE). A link between process parameters and properties of these thin films is obtained using electrical, structural and diffusion characterization of the devices. Finally we propose hypothesis to explain observed phenomena and also some improvements to meet the challenges of this process.
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Florian Oliva. Modélisation, caractérisation et optimisation des procédés de traitements thermiques pour la formation d’absorbeurs CIGS. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014EMSE0738⟩. ⟨tel-01502706⟩

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