Les stratégies d'adaptation des sociétés pyrénéennes entre 19 et 14 ka cal BP : étude biométrique et techno-économique comparée sur l'exploitation du bois de cerf et du bois de renne autour des Pyrénées au Magdalénien moyen et supérieur

Abstract : This study focuses on deer antler equipment (weapon and tool kits) crafted by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers that inhabited the Pyrenees during the Magdalenian (19-14 ka cal. BP). Throughout this period, which corresponds to the end of the last glaciation, the Pyrenees constitute a natural ecological border, more or less confining the distribution of deer on either side of this mountain range. Comparing the use of deer antler throughout the Pyrenees is a particularly interesting case study for addressing interactions between prehistoric people and environmental variations on either side of a natural ecological border. Through a techno-economic study of seven deerantler industries from the Pyrenean Magdalenian (Santa Catalina-NIII, Isturitz-SI/Eω, Isturitz-I/F1, Troubat-10/8, Belvis-1/4, Canecaude I-2, La Bora Gran), we were able to confirm that hunter-gatherer groups generally exploited their immediate environment for essential resources that they needed for these artefact types. While comparative technical and economic analyses of these two materials do not reveal any substantial advantageof one over the other, their exploitation does however imply in both cases a more or less long-term anticipationof needs. In this sense, the northern side of the range underlines an original example of forward planning of weaponry needs in the exploitation of reindeer antler by Late Middle and Early Upper Magdalenian groups. Finally, in order to overcome problems of taxonomic identification of deer antler (red deer vs. reindeer) tied tothe anthropic transformation of these artefacts, we developed a new identification method using micro-CT scanning,combining X-ray microtomography and advanced statistical analyses (SVM classifiers). This innovative method, with a confidence interval evaluated at 96%, allowed us to demonstrate the import of reindeer antler into the Iberian territory from the northern slopes of the mountain range.
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Alexandre Lefebvre. Les stratégies d'adaptation des sociétés pyrénéennes entre 19 et 14 ka cal BP : étude biométrique et techno-économique comparée sur l'exploitation du bois de cerf et du bois de renne autour des Pyrénées au Magdalénien moyen et supérieur. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0379⟩. ⟨tel-01501700⟩

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