Rôles du couple TrkB/BDNF et de l’autophagie dans la survie de cellules de cancer colorectal

Abstract : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the first digestive cancer in occidental countries. Despite effective therapies, cases of resistance and/or recurrence exist. Our laboratory works on two signaling pathways regulating balance between survival and cell death: neurotrophins (NTs, growth factors involved in cancer cells survival) and autophagy (cellular recycling involved in stress resistance). The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between these two pathways and the impact of their inhibition on cell fate and tumor evolution.Studies were performed on two CRC cell lines derived from the same patient: SW480 (primary tumor) and SW620 (node invasion), also used for subcutaneous xenografts on Nude mouse model. In addition, presence of major proteins of NTs (TrkB) and autophagy (LC3) were assessed in patient’s tissues.Previous work showed that TrkB overexpression is associated with pro-survival signaling in CRC cell. So, we choose to inhibit NTs pathway with K252a (100 nM). As expected, inactivation of the PI3K / AKT pathway was observed and CRC cells were able to activate autophagy. At the opposite, blocking autophagic flux by pharmacologic approach (chloroquine; CQ; 25µM) or by transcriptomic approach (siRNA against ATG5) induced over-activation of the NTs pathway, via TrkB/BDNF. Thus, both survival pathways compensate each other. Moreover, dual inhibition allowed improving the effect of single treatment through a significant reduction of metabolic activity. The using of both inhibitors in vivo induces a spectacular reduction of tumor volume (or even disappearance in some cases). Presence of active form of TrkB (phospho TrkB) and active form of LC3 (LC3-II) demonstrating activation of these two pathways, in patient’s tissues have been observed. Taken together, our results showed that activation of NTs and autophagy contribute to CRC cell survival. The approach consisting of dual inhibition of NTs and autophagy could be a major point for new CRC therapies development.
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Clément Mazouffre. Rôles du couple TrkB/BDNF et de l’autophagie dans la survie de cellules de cancer colorectal. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0091⟩. ⟨tel-01501403⟩

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