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Compréhension de l'inactivation de bactéries pathogènes présentes dans des produits alimentaires déshydratés

Abstract : Dried food products are common in food industry. Nevertheless, their safety is not well insured, involving numerous outbreaks every years around the world. Particularly, two pathogenic bacteria are of interest, one of them due to its number of cases, Salmonella enterica, and the other one due to its ability to survive environmental perturbations, Cronobacter spp.. A deeper comprehension of drying and heat treatment in dried state impact could lead to an optimization of drying and heating processes, insuring food safety. In the first instance, drying was considered as a supplementary decontamination step by optimizing its conditions of use. In a second phase, the rehydration impact was studied in order to found optimal conditions of pathogen inactivation. The study questions the rehydration currently puts in practice for food safety analysis. In a third phase, several heat treatments on a dried food product, intended to susceptible population, permitted to understand the specific role of water activity on the efficiency of heat treatment in dried state, and also propose a modelling for bacterial heat inactivation. In addition, it was possible to define two new parameters which represent the effect of temperature (zT) and the effect of water activity (yaw). Fourth, cellular death mechanisms for both studied bacteria, during the drying or during the heat treatment, were considered. It was clear that drying involved mainly membrane damages whereas heat treatment involved mainly enzymatic damages. Finally, in a fifth part, it was shown that virulence properties of both studied bacteria were affected by drying, increasing invasion capacity, but not by heat treatment in dried state. To finish, the knowledges brought by this study are useful for industrial point of view, in the case of drying and heat process optimization and also by proposing biological indicators to valid process efficiency in situ.
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Emilie Lang. Compréhension de l'inactivation de bactéries pathogènes présentes dans des produits alimentaires déshydratés. Ingénierie des aliments. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS034⟩. ⟨tel-01499649⟩

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