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Paléoécologie des protistes à partir d'archives biologiques provenant d'écosystèmes marins côtiers

Abstract : The community composition of protist and their temporal dynamic are are traditionally studied by analyzing data sets of monitoring/observation networks, whose implementation is however relatively recent (≤40 years). In this study, we analyzed the biological traces (resting stages and ancient DNA) preserved in sediments covering a time scale of 150 years in order to study changes in the composition and the temporal dynamics of marine protists, focusing mainly on two estuarine ecosystems of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). Metabarcoding analyses showed that only a minor part (16-18%) of the protists richness (#OTUs) of superficial sediments is retrieved in deep sediments, and that most of the protists found in ancient sediments are known to produce resting stages. Two main paleocommunities were differentiated (before/after 1950), suggesting the existence of a distinct and specific biodiversity for the identified periods. The relative abundances of dinoflagellates showed a decreasing trend since the 70s' and Alexandrium and Gonyaulax genera showed an opposite dynamic in terms of relative abundance over the time. Paleogenetic data (real-time PCR) suggest that A. minutum is present in the Bay of Brest since at least 1873 ± 7 and that, across a time scale of about 150 years, the species has proliferated only recently in the estuaries of the bay. Moreover, real-time PCR data suggest that the south-eastern part of the bay, where muddy sediment are more abundant, is potentially more favorable for the accumulation of the species cysts. Ecophysiological analyses (growth rate, phosphorus assimilation rate, and maximal biomass attained) performed on dinoflagellate strains (A. minutum and Scrippsiella donghaienis) showed a strong phenotypic intraspecific variability for both species and for both analyzed media. The results of this thesis work contribute to the research in sedimentary paleoecology, showing the advantages and limits of this approach to reveal still underexplored biological patterns.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 31, 2017 - 1:02:13 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01499148, version 1


Khadidja Zeyneb Klouch. Paléoécologie des protistes à partir d'archives biologiques provenant d'écosystèmes marins côtiers. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066280⟩. ⟨tel-01499148⟩



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