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Contribution au développement d'une mini-pelle tout-électrique : Approche prédictive pour la commande efficace et compliante des actionneurs électromécaniques

Abstract : Nowadays, the electro-mechanical actuators (EMA) are seen as an alternative to the conventional hydraulic cylinders in a growing number of industrial applications, including the aeronautic sector, thanks to their high efficiency and relatively simple commandability. According to this features, this actuator technology was selected to replace the hydraulic cylinders of the actuation system of a full-electric compact excavator in the ELEXC project. However, some concerns arose from the lack of existing examples with EMA functioning in relatively severe working conditions implying collisions of the actuators with stiff environments. Therefore, this manuscript will first focus on the characterization of the electro-mechanical actuator and of its performances in this specific case of application, enabled by the development of a multi-energy test-rig. Beside the validation of the EMA capacities, a physic law model will be developed, and its parameters tuned according to the experimental results. In a second part of this manuscript, two novel control laws will be proposed, aiming respectively to reduce the negative repercussions of the discrete characteristic of the electrical converter, and to counterpart the lack of natural compliance of the mechanical actuator. They will be both based on the concept of predictive control, but will differ from the conventional implementation of this type of controller. The first proposed topology is a modulator based on a vector Pulse Width Modulation, in which the PWM sequence to be used is defined online by a predictive controller according to a cost function that takes into account the current ripples, the switching losses and the common mode voltages specific to the sequences. Next, a position-based impedance controller, whose impedance parameters are defined online by a predictive controller, is introduced, in order to enable the EMA to penetrate a stiff environment with a relatively low dynamic increase of compression force on the mechanical transmission.
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Martin Gendrin. Contribution au développement d'une mini-pelle tout-électrique : Approche prédictive pour la commande efficace et compliante des actionneurs électromécaniques. Automatique / Robotique. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEI050⟩. ⟨tel-01497410⟩

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