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Massive MIMO, une approche angulaire pour les futurs systèmes multi-utilisateurs aux longueurs d’onde millimétriques

Abstract : As wireless communication networks are driven toward densification with small cell deployments, massive MIMO technology shows great promises to boost capacity through beamforming techniques. It is also well known that millimeter-Wave systems are going to be an important part of future dense network solutions because, not only do they offer high bandwidth, but channel is mostly Line-of-Sight (LOS). The attractiveness of using a multi-user Massive MIMO system at these frequencies comes partly from the reduced size of a many antenna base station, but also from the high beamforming gains they provide, which is highly suited to combat the high path losses experienced at such small wavelengths. First we show how raising the carrier frequency impacts the performance of some linear precoders widely used in Massive MIMO systems. By means of a geometrical deterministic channel model, we simulate a dense outdoor scenario and highlight the influence of the direct and multi-paths components. More importantly we prove that, in a Line-of-Sight (LOS) configuration, the discriminating skill of the well-known Zero Forcing precoder is much more sensitive to the antenna array structure and the user location than the Conjugate Beamforming precoder, also known as Time-Reversal. A precoder based on the knowledge of the angular position of all users is then introduced and compared to the other precoders based on channel response knowledge. Its robustness against angle estimation error is illustrated for a specific scenario and serves to back up the importance such a solution represents for future dense 5G networks, angular information being easier to estimate, and more so to keep track of.After that, we show how the knowledge of Directions of Arrival can be used to increase the sum capacity of a multi-user transmission through leakage based power allocation. This allocation uses an estimation of inter-user interference, referred to as Leakage, and we show through simulations how this factor, even under its most simplified form, improves realistic transmissions. Moreover this solution is not iterative and is extremely easy to implement which makes it particularly well suited for high deployment scenarios.Finally we introduce the Hybrid Analog and Digital Beamforming systems that have recently emerged to retain a high number of antennas without as many Radio Frequency (RF) chains, in order to keep high beamforming gains while lowering the complexity of conceiving many antenna base stations. We first describe a user equipment solution allowing the system to form a beam that adapts to its own movement so that it always focuses its energy toward the base station, using an on-board analog array and an Inertial Measurement Unit. Then we compare the performance of a known Hybrid solution with a fully digital Massive MIMO system, having as many RF chains as the Hybrid system, but serving user equipments with beamforming abilities. Mostly we emphasize how such a system allows for great flexibility and evolution, both traits being invaluable features in many future networks.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 27, 2017 - 5:25:09 PM
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Antoine Rozé. Massive MIMO, une approche angulaire pour les futurs systèmes multi-utilisateurs aux longueurs d’onde millimétriques. Electronique. INSA de Rennes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ISAR0014⟩. ⟨tel-01496719⟩



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