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Parallel Scheduling in the Cloud Systems : Approximate and Exact Methods

Abstract : The Cloud Computing appears as a strong concept to share costs and resources related to the use of end-users. As a consequence, several related models exist and are widely used (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS. . .). In this context, our research focused on the design of new methodologies and algorithms to optimize performances using the scheduling and combinatorial theories. We were interested in the performance optimization of a Cloud Computing environment where the resources are heterogeneous (operators, machines, processors...) but limited. Several scheduling problems have been addressed in this thesis. Our objective was to build advanced algorithms by taking into account all these additional specificities of such an environment and by ensuring the performance of solutions. Generally, the scheduling function consists in organizing activities in a specific system imposing some rules to respect. The scheduling problems are essential in the management of projects, but also for a wide set of real systems (telecommunication, computer science, transportation, production...). More generally, solving a scheduling problem can be reduced to the organization and the synchronization of a set of activities (jobs or tasks) by exploiting the available capacities (resources). This execution has to respect different technical rules (constraints) and to provide the maximum of effectiveness (according to a set of criteria). Most of these problems belong to the NP-Hard problems class for which the majority of computer scientists do not expect the existence of a polynomial exact algorithm unless P=NP. Thus, the study of these problems is particularly interesting at the scientific level in addition to their high practical relevance. In particular, we aimed to build new efficient combinatorial methods for solving parallel-machine scheduling problems where resources have different speeds and tasks are linked by precedence constraints. In our work we studied two methodological approaches to solve the problem under the consideration : exact and meta-heuristic methods. We studied three scheduling problems, where the problem of task scheduling in cloud environment can be generalized as unrelated parallel machines, and open shop scheduling problem with different constraints. For solving the problem of unrelated parallel machines with precedence constraints, we proposed a novel genetic-based task scheduling algorithms in order to minimize maximum completion time (makespan). These algorithms combined the genetic algorithm approach with different techniques and batching rules such as list scheduling (LS) and earliest completion time (ECT). We reviewed, evaluated and compared the proposed algorithms against one of the well-known genetic algorithms available in the literature, which has been proposed for the task scheduling problem on heterogeneous computing systems. Moreover, this comparison has been extended to an existing greedy search method, and to an exact formulation based on basic integer linear programming. The proposed genetic algorithms show a good performance dominating the evaluated methods in terms of problems' sizes and time complexity for large benchmark sets of instances. We also extended three existing mathematical formulations to derive an exact solution for this problem. These mathematical formulations were validated and compared to each other by extensive computational experiments. Moreover, we proposed an integer linear programming formulations for solving unrelated parallel machine scheduling with precedence/disjunctive constraints, this model based on the intervaland m-clique free graphs with an exponential number of constraints. We developed a Branch-and-Cut algorithm, where the separation problems are based on graph algorithms. [...]
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Mohammed Albarra Hassan Abdeljabbar Hassan. Parallel Scheduling in the Cloud Systems : Approximate and Exact Methods. Operations Research [cs.RO]. Université de Lorraine, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0223⟩. ⟨tel-01496257⟩

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