Impact des feux de végétation sur la pollution particulaire en région Euro-Méditerranéenne et en Australie

Abstract : To determine the health and climatic impacts of aerosols, the quantification of their precise concentrations, their chemical composition and their size distribution is needed. Among the several aerosols emitted from anthropogenic and natural activities, fire emissions and their transport are still a concern. This work aims to improve the characterization of these fires, to allow a better representation in models. To cover different types of fires, the study focuses on case studies in the Euro-Mediterranean region and in Australia. First, the information needed to compute fire emission fluxes is analyzed: the burnt area and injection heights are quantified using satellite observations. MODIS observations shows that the burnt area in Europe is mainly composed, on average, of cropland (70%), whereas savannah and shrubland fires are preponderant in Australia (50% and 40%). However, strong spatial heterogeneities are noticed, with by example forest fires representing 13% of the total observed burned area in Portugal and 65% in South-West of Australia. Using MISR and CALIOP observations of plume heights, it is shown that injection heights are mainly concentrated near the surface and at about 2000 m of altitude for the two regions. The highest differences are noticed above 4000 m, with 4,6-6,4% of emissions in Europe and 8,9-11% in Australia...
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Géraldine Rea. Impact des feux de végétation sur la pollution particulaire en région Euro-Méditerranéenne et en Australie. Interfaces continentales, environnement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066558⟩. ⟨tel-01490374⟩



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