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Le compagnonnage en tant qu'institution de formation professionnelle : études de son histoire, de ses curriculums et de ses phénomènes de transmission

Abstract : Our object of study is Compagnonnage (French for Journeymen). It is a secular institution of vocational training inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO. Our project addresses initial vocational training as accomplished by trainer Compagnons. Three levels are articulated in our study: history, curriculums and transmission phenomena.The first level, named "historical macro-analysis", involves a historical analysis and questions the territories of the Compagnons (all societies taken together) in the history of technical and vocational education. We use a cross-literature review methodology to consider the history of Compagnonnages with respect to technical and vocational education. We characterize three periods marked by changes of territorial organizations for Compagnons in this type of education.A second level, called "curricular meso-analysis", adopts a curricular perspective and seeks to understand the parts of curriculums, both prescribed and produced, within a French compagnons’ training center for carpenters (named CFA, “Centre de Formation d’Apprentis”) associated to the FCMB, the “Fédération Compagnonnique des Métiers du Bâtiment” (Federation of Journeymen in the Building Trade). We select assemblies as a concept and track it within prescribed curriculums which take the form of a referential in carpentry. We then propose a taxonomic formalization based on the description of assemblies in the Encyclopedia of Crafts (1977). Finally, we conduct a complete review of a whole training sequence and construct a visualization of produced curriculums. As a result, we propose the term "public curriculum" to reflect the fact that some curriculums are accessible to outsiders ("public") compared to those "hidden by occultation" (Forquin, 2008, p. 14, our translation). We further show that this field allows us to talk about produced curriculums in plural. Indeed, the large place conferred to autonomous activity enables individualization of the apprentices’ work rhythms.A third level, called "interaction micro-analysis", seeks to quantify and to qualify transmission phenomena in the same training center; and the values this transmission vehicles. We use the duration of phenomena in addition to the categories constructed by Vadcard (2013) – sentence type, content type, direction of interaction – to characterize transmission phenomena taking place in the drawing room and workshop between a trainer and his apprentices. Three main phenomena emerge as a result of quantification: dialectic of question and answer, observation and mediated feedback, and finally trainer-initiated interaction. Finally, due to our study of the field at all three levels, we were able to identify certain values promoted by the trainers. We offer an illustration of some of these professional values conveyed by the Compagnon trainer in the interaction with the apprentices.We studied Compagnonnage as a training institution through articulating its territories and its structures (level of historical macro-analysis) as well as through identification of prescribed and produced training curriculums (level of curricular meso-analysis) to result in the description of actually occurring transmission phenomena and of the values conveyed (level of interaction micro-analysis). By combining different levels of analysis, we contribute to the study of the nature and functioning of teaching and learning processes in this field. These three levels are complementary in reaching understanding of the complexity of Compagnonnage.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01490212
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Céline Meurger. Le compagnonnage en tant qu'institution de formation professionnelle : études de son histoire, de ses curriculums et de ses phénomènes de transmission. Education. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAH018⟩. ⟨tel-01490212⟩

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