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Contribution à la modélisation spatiale des événements extrêmes

Abstract : In this thesis, we investigate nonparametric modeling of spatial extremes. Our resultsare based on the main result of the theory of extreme values, thereby encompass Paretolaws. This framework allows today to extend the study of extreme events in the spatialcase provided if the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators satisfy the standardconditions of the Extreme Value Theory (EVT) in addition to the local conditions on thedata structure themselves. In the literature, there exists a vast panorama of extreme events models, which are adapted to the structures of the data of interest. However, in the case ofextreme spatial data, except max-stables models, little or almost no models are interestedin non-parametric estimation of the tail index and/or extreme quantiles. Therefore, weextend existing works on estimating the tail index and quantile under independent ortime-dependent data. The specificity of the methods studied resides in the fact that theasymptotic results of the proposed estimators take into account the spatial dependence structure of the relevant data, which is far from trivial. This thesis is then written in thecontext of spatial statistics of extremes. She makes three main contributions.• In the first contribution of this thesis, we propose a new approach of the estimatorof the tail index of a heavy-tailed distribution within the framework of spatial data. This approach relies on the estimator of Hill (1975). The asymptotic properties of the estimator introduced are established when the spatial process is adequately approximated by aspatial M−dependent process, spatial linear causal process or when the process satisfies a strong mixing condition.• In practice, it is often useful to link the variable of interest Y with covariate X. Inthis situation, the tail index depends on the observed value x of the covariate X and theunknown fonction (.) will be called conditional tail index. In most applications, the tailindexof an extreme value is not the main attraction, but it is used to estimate for instance extreme quantiles. The contribution of this chapter is to adapt the estimator of the tail index introduced in the first part in the conditional framework and use it to propose an estimator of conditional extreme quantiles. We examine the models called "fixed design"which corresponds to the situation where the explanatory variable is deterministic. To tackle the covariate, since it is deterministic, we use the window moving approach. Westudy the asymptotic behavior of the estimators proposed and some numerical resultsusing simulated data with the software "R".• In the third part of this thesis, we extend the work of the second part of the framemodels called "random design" for which the data are spatial observations of a pair (Y,X) of real random variables . In this last model, we propose an estimator of heavy tail-indexusing the kernel method to tackle the covariate. We use an estimator of the conditional tail index belonging to the family of the estimators introduced by Goegebeur et al. (2014b).
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 14, 2017 - 10:15:05 AM
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Aladji Bassene. Contribution à la modélisation spatiale des événements extrêmes. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIL30039⟩. ⟨tel-01488983⟩



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