Conception guidée par la physiologie de biopiles bioinspirées implantables

Abstract : We believe that in the near future micro-robots or artificial implanted organs can replace failing essential organs. Lithium batteries of cardiac pacemakers are well adapted to operate for years into sick patients. However, for next generation energy intensive implanted devices, longevity and volumic power of these batteries have to be improved.We chose two biomimetic approaches to create bioinspired biofuel cells: the enzymatic biofuel cells generate electrical current from the oxidation and the reduction of organic or inorganic compounds. The biomimetic biofuel cell generate an electrical potential from ion transfer across a biomimetic membrane.The enzymatic biofuel.cells, utilizing glucose and oxygen, are theorically able to work almost indefinitely as their substrates are always present in the body fluids. However, the biocompatibility and the long-term performance of these biofuel cells for a human implantation remain a real bottleneck. This thesis describes the design and the implantation of of new enzymatic biofuel cells in different animal models. The implantation of such devices is challenging and we brought creative solutions with a physiological point of view by addressing biocompatibility problems and electrical measurement techniques. We are now capable to implant these biofuel cells in big animals by analyzing the performances of the biofuel cell in real time.This thesis initiates the biomimetic biofuel cell concept. It consists in membrane transport protein (i.e ion channels) incorporated in a biomimetic membrane. The building of a biomimetic device demonstrates the transformation of a NaCl gradient into a proton gradient. We also generate a 20 mV voltage with a 38 mm² flat membrane. This biomimetic membrane containing the NhaA sodium/ proton exchanger is stable for more than two weeks.
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Jean-Pierre Alcaraz. Conception guidée par la physiologie de biopiles bioinspirées implantables. Ingénierie biomédicale. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS011⟩. ⟨tel-01473414v2⟩

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