Sur quelques problèmes de reconstruction en imagerie MA-TIRF et en optimisation parcimonieuse par relaxation continue exacte de critères pénalisés en norme-l0

Emmanuel Soubies 1
1 MORPHEME - Morphologie et Images
CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée , IBV - Institut de Biologie Valrose : U1091, Laboratoire I3S - SIS - Signal, Images et Systèmes
Abstract : This thesis is devoted to two problems encountered in signal and image processing. The first oneconcerns the 3D reconstruction of biological structures from multi-angle total interval reflectionfluorescence microscopy (MA-TIRF). Within this context, we propose to tackle the inverse problem byusing a variational approach and we analyze the effect of the regularization. A set of simple experimentsis then proposed to both calibrate the system and validate the used model. The proposed method hasbeen shown to be able to reconstruct precisely a phantom sample of known geometry on a 400 nmdepth layer, to co-localize two fluorescent molecules used to mark the same biological structures andalso to observe known biological phenomena, everything with an axial resolution of 20 nm. The secondpart of this thesis considers more precisely the l0 regularization and the minimization of the penalizedleast squares criteria (l2-l0) within the context of exact continuous relaxations of this functional. Firstly,we propose the Continuous Exact l0 (CEL0) penalty leading to a relaxation of the l2-l0 functional whichpreserves its global minimizers and for which from each local minimizer we can define a local minimizerof l2-l0 by a simple thresholding. Moreover, we show that this relaxed functional eliminates some localminimizers of the initial functional. The minimization of this functional with nonsmooth nonconvexalgorithms is then used on various applications showing the interest of minimizing the relaxation incontrast to a direct minimization of the l2-l0 criteria. Finally we propose a unified view of continuouspenalties of the literature within this exact problem reformulation framework
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Emmanuel Soubies. Sur quelques problèmes de reconstruction en imagerie MA-TIRF et en optimisation parcimonieuse par relaxation continue exacte de critères pénalisés en norme-l0. Autre. Université Côte d'Azur, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AZUR4082⟩. ⟨tel-01479054⟩

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