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Modélisation numérique de l’érosion diffuse des sols : interaction gouttes-ruissellement

Abstract : The aim of this work is to formulate an interrill erosion model. This model should take into account the main erosion processes (detachment, transport and sedimentation) and the interaction of raindrops during these processes. First we develop a law for rainfall detachment that includes the effects of the raindrops and the water layer thickness at the soil surface. We use the Gerris software to simulate the shear stresses created by the impacts of raindrops at the soil surface. These shear stresses allow to evaluate the quantity of soil detached by each raindrop. We have shown with a probabilistic approach that raindrops are almost independent during soil detachment. Then by summing all the raindrops detachments we obtain the rainfall detachment law. Futhermore the probabilistic study has revealed the possibility of a strong interaction between raindrops and settling particles. So, we used specific laboratory experiments to investigate the particles transport and sedimentation processes. These experiments show that the effect of raindrops is to increase the particles settling velocity. Finally, we propose a new erosion model which encompasses previous literature erosion models and that can describe the behavior of sediments concentrations with linear and non-linear behaviors. The model is able to simulate interrill and rill erosions at the watershed scale, bedload transport in rivers and chemical transfer. The integration of the model in the FullSWOF runoff software is also carried out.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01477869
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Submitted on : Monday, February 27, 2017 - 5:06:25 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01477869, version 1

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Amina Nouhou Bako. Modélisation numérique de l’érosion diffuse des sols : interaction gouttes-ruissellement. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ORLE2027⟩. ⟨tel-01477869⟩

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