Altérations des polynucléaires neutrophiles au cours des états septiques sévères

Abstract : Severe septic syndromes deeply impair innate and adaptive immunity and are responsible for sepsis-induced immunosuppression. While neutrophils represent the first line of defense against infection, little is known about their phenotype and functions few days after sepsis, when the immunosuppressive phase is maximal (i.e., between day 3 and 8). The objective of this study was thus to perform a global evaluation of neutrophil alterations in immunosuppressed septic patients based on phenotypic, functional and transcriptomic studies. Our results highlight a markedly altered neutrophil chemotaxis (functional and chemokine receptor expressions), oxidative burst, lactoferrin content and an increased number of circulating immature granulocytes (i.e., CD10dimCD16dim). In contrast, phagocytosis and activation capacities were conserved. It is interesting to note that a diminished myeloperoxidase expression appeared as the best predictor to identify a group of septic shock patients at high risk of death. Similarly, patients with lower proportions of CD10dimCD16dim granulocytes had a significant better survival compared with patients presenting a higher percentage. CD177 mRNA, coding for an activation molecule in chemotaxis but also known to be overexpressed in immature cells, had the highest fold change modulation between patients and controls. Considering the potential dual roles of CD177 neutrophil (i.e., maturation / chemotaxis), its participation in septic shock pathophysiology deserves further investigation. To conclude, circulating neutrophils present with phenotypic, functional and morphological alterations few days after sepsis onset. These dysfunctions may participate in the deleterious role of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The present results open new perspectives in the mechanisms favoring nosocomial infections after septic shock. They deserve to be further investigated in a larger clinical study and in animal models recapitulating these alterations
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Julie Demaret. Altérations des polynucléaires neutrophiles au cours des états septiques sévères. Immunologie. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE1137⟩. ⟨tel-01476344⟩

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