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Estimation des mouvements sismiques à Port-au-Prince (Haïti) : mesures des amplifications locales et simulations numériques

Abstract : In order to help estimating the seismic ground motion expected in the Port-au-Prince area (Haiti), we characterize local site effects, pointing out the seismic waves trapped in the loose layer of Cul-de-Sac basin, and provide realistic synthetic accelerograms for an hypothetical future earthquake.To this end, we propose to analyze signals from 78 earthquakes that occurred between March 2010and February 2013, by applying two methods of spectral ratios : The H/V earthquake method and the classical spectral ratio (SSR). A strong spatial variability was observed in the measured amplifications, which is quite consistent with the heterogeneous surface geology of the area. We notice in particular strong amplification on marine sediments close to the coast. In the foothills of the Massif de la Selle the reflection of the seismic waves lead to the concentration of the wave fields that strongly amplify seismic ground motion at the top of the hills. In addition, an increase of the signal duration due to the presence of surface waves was also highlighted on some stations of the plain. For the generation of synthetic accelerograms, we first use Empirical Green functions (EGF) method. The results show that the strongest acceleration is expected in Quaternary sediments near the coast and on the ridge of south hills of Port-au-Prince. Then, a hybrid simulation method combining complex transfer functions (amplitude and phase) and the EGF simulation on bedrock was set up and validated from testing on instrumented sites in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01471674
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Sadrac St Fleur. Estimation des mouvements sismiques à Port-au-Prince (Haïti) : mesures des amplifications locales et simulations numériques. Sciences de la Terre. Université Côte d'Azur, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AZUR4099⟩. ⟨tel-01471674⟩

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