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La construction d'une mémoire publique de la lutte contre la mafia de 1982 à 2012 à partir d'un martyrologe : Pio La Torre, Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa, Giovanni Falcone et Paolo Borsellino

Abstract : Though the Mafia has become recently an object of study, the Antimafia remains a black hole in the historiography of the Mezzogiorno while the assassinations of officials constitute tense moments in the history of Republican Italy. We have chosen to focus our attention on four emblematic figures that were murdered by the Mafia over its 1982 and 1992 outbursts of violence: Pio La Torre (deputy and regional secretary of the PCI); Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa (assassinated while he was Palermo prefect); Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino (magistrates). In order to observe how a public memory of the fight against the Mafia was built, we use a panel of sources that is typical of the present time history: archives, press, written and audiovisual memory productions, but also oral sources thanks to the interviews we lead during our field investigation. These sources allow us to understand the context as well as to analyze the evolution of the representations of the anti-mafia fight’s martyrs.The first part is dedicated to the study of the moment when these four officials were assassinated and an immediate memory built. The analysis of the press, in the wake of the outbursts of violence of the Mafia, brings out the characteristics of the immediate memory of victims, and reveals an unprecedented anti-mafia civil mobilization. The second part deals with the elaboration and the institutionalization of the victims’ memory, through the study of the commemorations and the representations. The cross-study analysis of our various sources brings to light the different strata of the memory elaboration. Finally the third part shows that the anti-mafia memory, though institutionalized and structured, is actually a tormented memory, as is revealed by the justice breaches, the political uses of the anti-mafia memory or the conditioning effect of current events on the decennial commemorations. Making the history of the anti-mafia memory thus allows us to reveal under a new light a number of tensions that are characteristic of contemporary Italy. Therefore the memory of the fight against the Mafia appears as a privileged observatory to examine the political, societal and cultural mutations of Republican Italy.
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Charlotte Moge. La construction d'une mémoire publique de la lutte contre la mafia de 1982 à 2012 à partir d'un martyrologe : Pio La Torre, Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa, Giovanni Falcone et Paolo Borsellino. Histoire. Università degli studi (Pise, Italie), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAH030⟩. ⟨tel-01470596⟩

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