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Impacts des oxystérols par le biais des LXRs et du AhR dans la myélinisation

Abstract : The myelination of axons is a complex process performed by Schwann cells (SC) and by oligodendrocytes (OL) respectively in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the central nervous system (CNS). A slight change in expression of myelin structural proteins has a deep impact on the development and preservation of nerve fibers and their myelin sheaths, as observed for example in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. Our aim is to identify new signaling pathways able to control the expression of these structural proteins. SC and OL contain and synthesize high amount of reactive molecules generated from the oxidation of cholesterol: the oxysterols. Their implication in cholesterol homeostasis and in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders is well known but few data are available for their functions in myelination of PNS and CNS. Firstly, we demonstrate that oxysterols inhibit peripheral myelin gene expression: MPZ and PMP22. This downregulation is mediated by two mechanisms: by increasing the binding of LXRs to myelin genes promoters and by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway leading to a decrease of b-catenin recruitment at the levels of the MPZ and PMP22 promoters. However, in the CNS, our data demonstrate that activation of LXRS by oxysterols stimulate myelin genes expression (PLP and MBP). Interestingly, by using demyelinated organotipc culture of cerebellum, we show that oxysterols enhance OL differentiation and promote remyelination, via LXRs. Then, we studied the role of the transcriptional coregulatory, RIP140, in myelination. RIP140 is able to act as a corepressor or as a coactivator and can interact with LXRs. In Zebrafish, the knocked down of the orthologue of RIP140 led to a decrease of peripheral and central myelin gene expression and to a defect in myelin sheath ultrastructure. Finally, we focused on impact of AhR in myelination process. AhR is a ligand activated transcription factor mostly known to interact with environmental pollutant like dioxins to mediate their toxic and carcinogenic effect. However, its detoxifying activity is posterior to the apparition of the gene and its physiological roles and endogenous ligands remain elusive. We show that the main oxysterol in the nervous system is 7-ketocholesterol which is an endogenous modulator of AhR. We report that the constitutive absence of AhR in mice leads to defects in locomotion behaviors. We studied the impact of this invalidation on the myelin of sciatic nerve. We observed a severe demyelinating phenotype and deregulation of myelin genes expression. Moreover, we demonstrated a cross-talk between AhR and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Our data reveal a new endogenous role of AhR in myelination process.
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Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu Shackleford. Impacts des oxystérols par le biais des LXRs et du AhR dans la myélinisation. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05P638⟩. ⟨tel-01470132⟩

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