I. Figure, S. Dans-la, D. Le, P. Le, . Abs et al., Evolution des températures moyennes mensuelles de l'air de Janvier 2013 à Décembre, 2014.

D. St, A. Gm, and . Bd, isotopiques : Parallèlement, trois campagnes de prélèvements d'air ont permis d'analyser le signal isotopique du CO2 (? 13 C-CO2) dans différentes zones stratégiques de la cavité choisies selon les teneurs en CO2 et leur évolution au cours de l'année. Ainsi, 7 prélèvements

I. Figure, S. Dans-la, D. Le, P. Le, . Abs et al., Evolution des températures moyennes mensuelles de l'air de Janvier 2013 à Juillet, 2016.

I. Figure, Evolution des différences de température entre la roche et l'air (Troche-Tair) pour les différents points de mesure de la cavité de 2013 à 2016. Les pointillés marquent l

M. Bakalowicz and &. C. Jusserand, Etude de l'infiltration en milieu karstique par les méthodes géochimiques et isotopiques, cas de la grotte de Niaux Hommage à, 1986.

M. Bakalowicz, La zone d'infiltration des aquifères karstiques, 1995.

J. U. Baldini, L. M. Baldini, F. Mcdermott, and N. Clipson, Carbon dioxide sources, sinks, and spatial variability in shallow temperate zone caves: evidence from Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, vol.68, issue.1, pp.4-11, 2006.

J. U. Baldini, F. Mcdermott, D. L. Hoffmann, D. A. Richards, and N. Clipson, Very high-frequency and seasonal cave atmosphere PCO2 variability: Implications for stalagmite growth and oxygen isotope-based paleoclimate records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.272, issue.1-2, pp.118-129, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.04.031

J. A. Baldock and J. O. Skjemstad, Role of the soil matrix and minerals in protecting natural organic materials against biological attack, Organic Geochemistry, vol.31, issue.7-8, pp.697-710, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00049-8

C. Batiot, Etude expérimentale du cycle du carbone en régions karstiques Apport du carbone organique et du carbone minéral la connaissance hydrogéologique des systèmes, (Espagne) (Doctoral dissertation, p.247, 2002.

C. Batiot, C. Liñán, B. Andreo, C. Emblanch, F. Carrasco et al., Use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) as tracer of diffuse infiltration in a dolomitic karstic system: The Nerja Cave (Andalusia, southern Spain) Geophysical research letters, p.30, 2003.

C. Batiot-guilhe, J. Seidel, H. Jourde, O. Hébrard, and V. Bailly-comte, Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222 Rn in a Mediterranean sinkhole-spring (Causse d'Aumelas, SE France), International Journal of Speleology, vol.36, issue.5, 2007.

J. Benavente, I. Vadillo, F. Carrasco, A. Soler, C. Liñán et al., Air Carbon Dioxide Contents in the Vadose Zone of a Mediterranean Karst, Vadose Zone Journal 9, 2010.
DOI : 10.2136/vzj2009.0027

S. A. Billings and D. D. Richter, Changes in stable isotopic signatures of soil nitrogen and carbon during 40??years of forest development, Oecologia, vol.342, issue.2, pp.325-333, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-006-0366-7

G. Bignot, E. Blagodatskaya, S. Blagodatsky, M. Dorodnikov, and Y. Kuzyakov, Recherches stratigraphiques sur les calcaires du Crétacé supérieur et de l'Eocène d'Istrie et des régions voisines Essai de révision du Liburnien Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates in soil: results of three CO2 enrichment experiments, Thèse, pp.836-848, 1972.

N. Blair, A. Leu, E. Muñoz, J. Olsen, E. Kwong et al., Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.50, issue.4, pp.996-1001, 1985.

F. Bourges, P. Genthon, A. Mangin, and D. Hulst, Microclimates of l'Aven d'Orgnac and other French limestone caves (Chauvet, Esparros, Marsoulas), International Journal of Climatology, vol.44, issue.12, pp.1651-1670, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.1327

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-00366968

D. R. Bowling, D. E. Pataki, and J. T. Randerson, fluxes, New Phytologist, vol.51, issue.1, pp.24-40, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01153.x

D. O. Breecker, A. E. Payne, J. Quade, J. L. Banner, C. E. Ball et al., The sources and sinks of CO2 in caves under mixed woodland and grassland vegetation, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.96, pp.230-246, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2012.08.023

H. Breuil, Une Altamira fran??aise??: la caverne de Lascaux ?? Montignac (Dordogne), Comptes-rendus des s??ances de l ann??e - Acad??mie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, vol.85, issue.5, 1941.
DOI : 10.3406/crai.1941.77450

H. Breuil, Quatre cents siècles d'art pariétal, 1952.

L. Bruxelles and H. Et-camus, Grotte de Lascaux. Formes et formations anciennes de surface et subsurface (Montignac, Dordogne) Rapport d'étude, p.99, 2014.

F. Carrasco, I. Vadillo, C. Liñan, B. Andreo, and &. J. Durán, Control of environmental parameters for management and conservation of Nerja Cave, Acta Carsologica, vol.31, pp.105-122, 2002.

H. Celle?jeanton, C. Emblanch, J. Mudry, and A. Charmoille, ) to understand the role of the unsaturated zone: A case study-Karst aquifers in the Doubs valley, eastern France, Geophysical research letters, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002GL016781

T. E. Cerling, D. K. Solomon, J. A. Quade, and . Bowman, On the isotopic composition of carbon in soil carbon dioxide, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.55, issue.11, pp.55-3403, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(91)90498-T

J. B. Charlier, C. Bertrand, and J. Mudry, Conceptual hydrogeological model of flow and transport of dissolved organic carbon in a small Jura karst system, Journal of Hydrology, vol.460, issue.461, pp.52-64, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.06.043

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00724229

A. Charmoille, Traçage hydrochimiques des interactions hydrauliques et mécaniques entre les volumes perméables et peu perméables au sein des aquifères fracturés carbonatés, Thèse, p.320, 2005.

A. A. Cigna, Modern trend in cave monitoring, Acta carsologica, vol.31, issue.1, pp.35-54, 2002.

I. D. Clark and P. Fritz, Environmental isotopes in hydrogeology, 1997.

A. Cras, Etude et modélisation de la dynamique de fonctionnement hydrologique des bassins versants torrentiels marneux, apport du traçage naturel: application aux bassins versants de recherche et d'expérimentation (BVRE) de Draix, Alpes-de-Haute, 2005.

S. A. Craven, Carbon Dioxide variations in Cango Cave, South Africa, Cave and Karst Science, vol.23, issue.3, pp.89-92, 1996.

J. Crowther, Carbon dioxide concentrations in some tropical karst soils, west malaysia, CATENA, vol.10, issue.1-2, pp.27-39, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/S0341-8162(83)80002-2

S. E. Crow, E. W. Sulzman, W. D. Rugh, R. D. Bowden, and K. Lajtha, Isotopic analysis of respired CO 2 during decomposition of separated soil organic matter pools, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, issue.11, pp.38-3279, 2006.

S. Cuezva, A. Fernandez-cortes, D. Benavente, P. Serrano-ortiz, A. S. Kowalski et al., Short-term CO2(g) exchange between a shallow karstic cavity and the external atmosphere during summer: Role of the surface soil layer, Atmospheric Environment, vol.45, issue.7, pp.1418-1427, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.12.023

G. R. Davidson, The stable isotopic composition and measurement of carbon in soil CO2, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.59, issue.12, pp.2485-2489, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(95)00143-3

E. A. Davidson and I. A. Janssens, Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change, Nature, vol.63, issue.7081, pp.440-165, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04514

J. A. Davis, Adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter at the oxide/water interface, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.46, issue.11, pp.46-2381, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(82)90209-5

D. Freitas, C. R. Littlejohn, R. N. Clarkson, T. S. Kristament, and I. S. , Cave climate: Assessment of airflow and ventilation, Journal of Climatology, vol.23, issue.4, pp.383-397, 1982.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.3370020408

D. Freitas, C. R. Banbury, and K. , Build up and diffusion of carbon dioxide in cave air in relation to visitor numbers at the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand. Cave Management in Australasia XIII, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Australasian Conference on Cave and Karst Management, Mount Gambier, South Australia. Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association, pp.84-89, 1999.

D. Freitas, C. R. Schmekal, and A. , Condensation as a microclimate process: measurement, numerical simulation and prediction in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand, International Journal of Climatology, vol.72, issue.4, pp.557-575, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.898

D. Marsily and G. , Quantitative hydrogeology, Paris School of Mines, 1986.

P. Deines, D. Langmuir, and R. S. Harmon, Stable carbon isotope ratios and the existence of a gas phase in the evolution of carbonate ground waters, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.38, issue.7, pp.38-1147, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(74)90010-6

J. W. Delleur, The handbook of groundwater engineering, Boca Raton, Fla, pp.18-18, 1999.

A. Denis, Identification of functional relationships between atmospheric pressure and CO 2 in the cave of Lascaux using the concept of entropy of curves, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.32, issue.5, 2005.

D. Doctor, S. Lojen, and M. Horvat, A stable isotope investigation of the classical karst aquifer: evaluating karst groundwater components for water quality preservation, acta carsologica, pp.79-92, 2000.

H. Dörr and K. O. Münich, Annual Variations of the 14C Content of Soil CO2, Radiocarbon, vol.2, issue.2A, pp.338-345, 1986.
DOI : 10.1017/S0033822200007438

D. Dragovich and J. Grose, Impact of tourists on carbon dioxide levels at Jenolan Caves, Australia: an examination of microclimatic constraints on tourist cave management, Geoforum, vol.21, issue.1, pp.111-120, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7185(90)90009-U

W. Dreybrodt, L. Eisenlohr, B. Madry, and S. Ringer, Precipitation kinetics of calcite in the system CaCO3???H2O???C02: The conversion to CO2 by the slow process H++HCO3??? ??? CO2+H2O as a rate limiting step, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.61, issue.18, pp.61-3897, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00201-9

W. Dreybrodt and D. Scholz, Climatic dependence of stable carbon and oxygen isotope signals recorded in speleothems: From soil water to speleothem calcite, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.75, issue.3, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.11.002

M. Duranceau, J. Ghashghaie, F. Badeck, E. Deleens, and G. Cornic, L. under progressive drought, Plant, Cell & Environment, vol.156, issue.5, pp.515-523, 1999.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-3040.1999.00420.x

C. Ek, Mesures du CO2 dans l'air des grottes: comparaison Québec-Belgique, 8th International Congress of Speleology, pp.672-673, 1981.

C. Ek and M. Gewelt, Carbon dioxide in cave atmospheres. New results in belgium and comparison with some other countries, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, pp.173-187, 1985.
DOI : 10.1002/esp.3290100209

A. Ekblad, B. Boström, A. Holm, and D. Comstedt, Forest soil respiration rate and ?13C is regulated by recent above ground weather conditions, Oecologia, vol.20, issue.1, pp.136-142, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-004-1776-z

C. Emblanch, Les équilibres chimiques et isotopiques du carbone dans les aquifères karstiques. Etude en région méditerranéenne de montagne sur le bassin expérimental de la Fontaine de Vaucluse, Thèse de Doctorat, p.219, 1997.

C. Emblanch, B. Blavoux, J. M. Puig, and M. Couren, Le marquage de la zone non saturée du karst à l'aide du carbone 13. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series IIA- Earth and Planetary Science, pp.327-332, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/s1251-8050(98)80302-9

C. Emblanch, G. M. Zuppi, J. Mudry, B. Blavoux, and C. Batiot, Carbon 13 of TDIC to quantify the role of the unsaturated zone: the example of the Vaucluse karst systems (Southeastern France), Journal of Hydrology, vol.279, issue.1-4, pp.262-274, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00180-X

K. Emrich, D. H. Ehhalt, and J. C. Vogel, Carbon isotope fractionation during the precipitation of calcium carbonate, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.8, issue.5, pp.363-371, 1970.
DOI : 10.1016/0012-821X(70)90109-3

J. Faimon, D. Troppová, V. Baldík, and R. Novotný, Air circulation and its impact on microclimatic variables in the C??sa??sk?? Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), International Journal of Climatology, vol.38, issue.4, pp.599-623, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.2298

C. Fang and J. B. Moncrieff, The dependence of soil CO2 efflux on temperature, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.33, issue.2, pp.155-165, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00125-5

G. D. Farquhar, J. R. Ehleringer, and K. T. Hubick, Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Photosynthesis, Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, vol.40, issue.1, pp.503-537, 1989.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.pp.40.060189.002443

P. L. Fernández, I. Gutierrez, L. S. Quindos, J. Soto, and E. Villar, Natural ventilation of the Paintings Room in the Altamira cave, Nature, vol.11, issue.6070, 1986.
DOI : 10.1038/321586a0

A. Fernandez-cortes, S. Cuezva, E. Garcia-anton, M. Alvarez-gallego, C. Pla et al., Changes in the storage and sink of carbon dioxide in subsurface atmospheres controlled by climate-driven processes: the case of the Ojo Guare??a karst system, Environmental Earth Sciences, vol.47, issue.1???3, pp.74-7715, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s12665-015-4710-2

C. Ferchal, Modélisation des écoulements et des transferts de masse et de chaleur dans la grotte de Lascaux, thèse, université de Bordeaux I, p.133, 2003.

S. Fontaine, A. Mariotti, and L. Abbadie, The priming effect of organic matter: a question of microbial competition?, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.6, pp.837-843, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00123-8

D. Ford and P. Williams, Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118684986

I. Friedman and J. R. Neil, Data of geochemistry: Compilation of stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical interest, 1977.

S. Frisia, I. J. Fairchild, J. Fohlmeister, R. Miorandi, C. Spötl et al., Carbon mass-balance modelling and carbon isotope exchange processes in dynamic caves, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.75, issue.2, pp.75-380, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.10.021

E. Garcia-anton, S. Cuezva, A. Fernandez-cortes, D. Benavente, and S. Sanchez-moral, Main drivers of diffusive and advective processes of CO2-gas exchange between a shallow vadose zone and the atmosphere, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, vol.21, pp.113-129, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.12.006

E. Garcia-anton, S. Cuezva, V. Jurado, E. Porca, A. Z. Miller et al., Combining stable isotope (??13C) of trace gases and aerobiological data to monitor the entry and dispersion of microorganisms in caves, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.22, issue.1, pp.473-484, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s11356-013-1915-3

D. Genty, D. Blamart, B. Ghaleb, V. Plagnes, C. Causse et al., Timing and dynamics of the last deglaciation from European and North African ? 13 C stalagmite profiles?comparison with Chinese and South Hemisphere stalagmites, Quaternary Science Reviews, issue.17, pp.25-2118, 2006.

J. Ghashghaie, M. Duranceau, F. W. Badeck, G. Cornic, M. T. Adeline et al., delta13C of CO2 respired in the dark in relation to delta13C of leaf metabolites: comparison between Nicotiana sylvestris and Helianthus annuus under drought, Plant, Cell and Environment, vol.18, issue.5, pp.505-515, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s004420051016

D. P. Gillikin and S. Bouillon, Determination of??18O of water and??13C of dissolved inorganic carbon using a simple modification of an elemental analyser-isotope ratio mass spectrometer: an evaluation, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol.40, issue.8, pp.1475-1478, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/rcm.2968

R. Gonfiantini and G. M. Zuppi, Carbon isotope exchange rate of DIC in karst groundwater, Chemical Geology, vol.197, issue.1-4, pp.319-336, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0009-2541(02)00402-3

J. Gunn, Limestone solution rates and process in the waitomo district, New Zealand, Earth surface process and landforms, pp.427-445, 1981.

J. Hakl, I. Csige, I. Hunyadi, A. Várhegyi, and G. Géczy, Radon transport in fractured porous media ??? Experimental study in caves, Environment International, vol.22, pp.433-437, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0160-4120(96)00143-2

T. F. Heatherton, L. T. Kozlowski, R. C. Frecker, and K. O. Fagerstrom, The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, Addiction, vol.36, issue.9, pp.1119-1127, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0306-4603(90)90009-M

D. Hope, M. F. Billett, and M. S. Cresser, Exports of organic carbon in two river systems in NE Scotland, Journal of Hydrology, vol.193, issue.1-4, pp.61-82, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03150-2

P. Huang, M. Wang, and C. Chiu, Soil mineral???organic matter???microbe interactions: Impacts on biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in soils, Pedobiologia, vol.49, issue.6, pp.609-635, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pedobi.2005.06.006

J. M. James, Carbon dioxide in cave atmosphere. Transaction of British Cave Research Association, pp.417-429, 1977.

R. S. Jassal, T. A. Black, G. B. Drewitt, M. D. Novak, D. Gaumont-guay et al., A model of the production and transport of CO2 in soil: predicting soil CO2 concentrations and CO2 efflux from a forest floor, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, pp.219-236, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.013

H. Jupin, Le cycle du carbone. Hachette Education, Collection Fondamentaux, pp.68-160, 1996.

G. Kaufmann and W. Dreybrodt, Calcite dissolution kinetics in the system CaCO, p.3, 2007.

T. Kätterer, M. Reichstein, O. Andrén, and A. Lomander, Temperature dependence of organic matter decomposition: a critical review using literature data analyzed with different models, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.27, issue.3, pp.258-262, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s003740050430

C. D. Keeling, The concentration and isotopic abundances of atmospheric carbon dioxide in rural areas, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.13, issue.4, pp.322-334, 1958.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(58)90033-4

A. B. Klimchouk, The formation of epikarst and its role in vadose speleogenesis) Speleogenesis; Evolution of Karst Aquifers, pp.91-99, 2000.

N. Koudina, R. G. Garcia, J. F. Thovert, and P. M. Adler, Permeability of three-dimensional fracture networks, Physical Review E, vol.57, issue.4, p.4466, 1998.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.57.4466

A. J. Kowalczk and P. N. Froelich, Cave air ventilation and CO2 outgassing by radon-222 modeling: How fast do caves breathe? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 289, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.11.010

A. S. Kowalski, P. Serrano-ortiz, I. A. Janssens, S. Sanchez-moral, S. Cuezva et al., Can flux tower research neglect geochemical CO2 exchange?, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol.148, issue.6-7, pp.1045-1054, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.02.004

A. S. Kowalski and E. P. Sánchez-cañete, -Rich Air of the Vadose Zone, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol.49, issue.8, pp.49-1692, 2010.
DOI : 10.1175/2010JAMC2534.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00807294

Y. Kuzyakov, Sources of CO2 efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.38, issue.3, pp.425-448, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.08.020

W. J. Lambert and P. Aharon, Controls on dissolved inorganic carbon and ? 13 C in cave waters from DeSoto Caverns: implications for speleothem ? 13 C assessments, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, issue.3, pp.75-753, 2011.

W. F. Langelier, The analytical control of anti-corrosion water treatment, Journal of American waterworks association, vol.28, pp.1500-1521, 1936.

R. Lastennet, Rôle de la zone non saturée dans le fonctionnement des aquifères karstiques, thèse, p.239, 1994.

R. Lastennet and J. Mudry, Role of karstification and rainfall in the behavior of a heterogeneous karst system, Environmental Geology, vol.32, issue.2, pp.114-123, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s002540050200

R. N. Latimer and D. A. Risk, An inversion approach for determining distribution of production and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, Biogeosciences, vol.13, issue.7, pp.2111-2122, 2016.
DOI : 10.5194/bg-13-2111-2016

A. Leroi-gourhan, Préhistoire de l'art occidental. (éd. 1st), 1965.

A. Leroi-gourhan and A. Allain, Lascaux inconnu, supplément à Gallia préhistoire n°XII, 1979.

A. Leroi-gourhan and J. Evin, Les datations de Lascaux, Lascaux inconnu, supplément à Gallia Préhistoire n°XII, pp.75-80, 1979.

F. Liang, L. Song, and X. Wei, The influences of cave tourism on CO2 and temperature in Baiyun Cave, International Journal of Speleology, issue.14, pp.29-77, 2000.

G. Lin, J. R. Ehleringer, P. Rygiewicz, M. G. Johnson, and D. T. Tingey, Elevated CO2 and temperature impacts on different components of soil CO2 efflux in Douglas-fir terracosms, Global Change Biology, vol.95, issue.2, pp.157-168, 1999.
DOI : 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1998.t01-1-00004.x

C. Liñán, I. Vadillo, and F. Carrasco, Carbon dioxide concentration in air within the Nerja Cave, International Journal of Speleology, vol.37, issue.2, 2008.

N. Linglois-dussert, Suivi interannuel et modélisation de la composition chimique des eaux d'écoulement en relation avec les occupations du sol: cas du bassin versant du Cousin (Morvan, Thèse de doctorat, 2003.

B. Lismonde, Climatologie du monde souterrain, Tome, vol.1, p.265, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00261957

B. Lismonde, Climatologie du monde souterrain, Tome, vol.2, p.361, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00261957

Z. Liu, Q. Li, H. Sun, and J. Wang, Seasonal, diurnal and storm-scale hydrochemical variations of typical epikarst springs in subtropical karst areas of SW China: Soil CO2 and dilution effects, Journal of Hydrology, vol.337, issue.1-2, pp.207-223, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.01.034

B. Lopez, Les processus de transfert d'eau et de dioxyde de carbone dans l'épikarst, thèse, université de Bordeaux I, p.372, 2009.

M. D. Loÿe-pilot, Les variations des teneurs en carbone organique (dissous et particulaire) d'un petit torrent méditerranéen montagnard (Corse) Verh, Internat. Verein. Limnol, vol.22, pp.2087-2093, 1985.

M. Luetscher and P. Y. Jeannin, Temperature distribution in karst systems: the role of air and water fluxes, Terra Nova, vol.1, issue.6, pp.344-350, 2004.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-3121.1998.00179.x

Y. Luo and X. Zhou, Soil respiration and the environment, 2006.

P. Malaurent, J. Brunet, D. Lacanette, and J. P. Caltagirone, Apport de la modélisation numérique à la compréhension de l'état des parois de grottes préhistoriques. Premiers résultats à lascaux, pp.53-59, 2005.

M. Mandi?, A. Mihevc, A. Leis, and I. K. Broni?, in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia, International Journal of Speleology, vol.42, issue.3, pp.279-289, 2013.
DOI : 10.5038/1827-806X.42.3.11

A. Mangin, Contribution à l'étude hydrodynamique des aquifères karstiques, Thèse de Doctorat, pp.47-58, 1975.

A. Mangin, F. Bourges, &. D-'hulst, and D. , Painted caves conservation: a stability problem in a natural system (the example of the prehistoric cave of Gargas, French Pyrenees), 1999.

A. Mariotti, Le carbone 13 en abondance naturelle, traceur de la dynamique de la matière organique des sols et de l'évolution des paléoenvironnements continentaux, Cahiers Orstom, série Pédologie, vol.26, issue.4, pp.299-313, 1991.

J. L. Meyer, R. T. Edwards, and R. Risley, Bacterial growth on dissolved organic carbon from a blackwater river, Microbial Ecology, vol.261, issue.5, pp.13-29, 1987.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02014960

S. Milanolo and F. Gabrov?ek, Analysis of carbon dioxide variations in the atmosphere of Srednja Bijambarska Cave, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Boundary-layer meteorology, pp.479-493, 2009.

R. J. Millington and J. P. Quirk, Permeability of porous solids, Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol.57, pp.1200-1207, 1961.
DOI : 10.1039/tf9615701200

S. Minvielle, Etude de l'infiltration et de ses variations interannuelles en contexte épikarstique pour la caractérisation du fonctionnement des hydrosystèmes karstiques : utilisation de la méthode ISc-PCO2 et des modèles réservoirs, Thèse de Doctorat, p.302, 2015.

P. Moldrup, T. Olesen, T. Yamaguchi, P. Schjønning, and D. E. Rolston, MODELING DIFFUSION AND REACTION IN SOILS: IX. THE BUCKINGHAM-BURDINE-CAMPBELL EQUATION FOR GAS DIFFUSIVITY IN UNDISTURBED SOIL, Soil Science, vol.164, issue.8, pp.164-542, 1999.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-199908000-00002

W. G. Mook, J. C. Bommerson, and W. H. Staverman, Carbon isotope fractionation between dissolved bicarbonate and gaseous carbon dioxide, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.22, issue.2, pp.169-176, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0012-821X(74)90078-8

M. Mudarra, B. Andreo, and A. Baker, Characterisation of dissolved organic matter in karst spring waters using intrinsic fluorescence: Relationship with infiltration processes, Science of The Total Environment, vol.409, issue.18, pp.409-3448, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.026

J. Mudry, Sur l'origine des gradients de teneurs isotopiques et g??ochimiques dans les eaux karstiques du Jura (France), Journal of Hydrology, vol.50, pp.167-178, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-1694(81)90067-6

T. Nelson, M. H. Harpster, S. P. Mayfield, and W. C. Taylor, Light-regulated gene expression during maize leaf development, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.98, issue.2, pp.98-558, 1984.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.98.2.558

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2113091

H. L. Penman, Gas and vapour movements in the soil: II. The diffusion of carbon dioxide through porous solids, The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol.6, issue.04, pp.570-581, 1940.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-193306000-00001

D. Perrin, Flux de respiration de sols forestiers : analyse et modélisation à différentes échelles spatiales et temporelles, Thèse de doctorat : Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgique), 2005.

S. Perrin, Expertise des peuplements forestiers appartenant à l'état et en cours d'acquisition sur la colline de Lascaux, p.98, 2014.

N. Peyraube, Apports des équilibres calco-carboniques et du carbone 13 pour l'étude de l'air et des écoulements d'eau dans la zone non saturée du karst, Thèse de Doctorat, p.350, 2011.

N. Peyraube, R. Lastennet, and A. Denis, Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the unsaturated zone of a karstic massif, using the PCO2?SIc relationship, Journal of Hydrology, vol.430, pp.13-24, 2012.

N. Peyraube, R. Lastennet, A. Denis, and P. Malaurent, Estimation of epikarst air <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mi>P</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>CO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:math> using measurements of water ??13CTDIC, cave air <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mi>P</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>CO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:math> and <mml:math altimg="si3.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mrow><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">??</mml:mi><mml:msup><mml:mrow/><mml:mrow><mml:mn>13</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:msup><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>C</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>CO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:math>, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.118, pp.1-17, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2013.03.046

D. Peyrony, L'art pictural de la grotte de Lascaux et celui dit : ?? Levantin espagnol ??, Bulletin de la Soci??t?? pr??historique fran??aise, vol.46, issue.3, 1949.
DOI : 10.3406/bspf.1949.2510

J. Poulenard, Etude des sols du site de la Grotte de Lascaux, Rapport d'étude, Edytem, 2014.

R. G. Qualls and B. L. Haines, Biodegradability of Dissolved Organic Matter in Forest Throughfall, Soil Solution, and Stream Water, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.56, issue.2, pp.578-586, 1992.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1992.03615995005600020038x

Y. Quinif, Fantômisation, cryptoaltération et altération sur roche nue, le triptyque de la karstification, Actes du colloque européen Karst-99, pp.159-164, 1999.

P. Renault, Sur la distinction de plusieurs régions karstiques en raison de la teneur en anhydride carbonique des atmosphères de grottes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.267, pp.2288-229, 1968.
DOI : 10.3406/bagf.1971.7653

D. F. Riechelmann, M. Deininger, D. Scholz, S. Riechelmann, A. Schröder-ritzrau et al., Disequilibrium carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation in recent cave calcite: Comparison of cave precipitates and model data, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.103, pp.232-244, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2012.11.002

E. A. Rochette, J. I. Drever, and F. S. Sanders, Chemical weathering in the West Glacier Lake drainage basin, Snowy Range, Wyoming; implications for future acid deposition, Rocky Mountain Geology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.29-44, 1988.

H. Roques, Contribution à l'étude statique et cinétique des systèmes gaz carboniqueeau-carbonate , annales de spéléologie, pp.255-484, 1964.

J. Rousk and E. Bååth, Fungal biomass production and turnover in soil estimated using the acetate-in-ergosterol technique, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.39, issue.8, pp.2173-2177, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.03.023

F. B. Salisbury and C. W. Ross, The photosynthesis-transpiration compromise, 1978.

E. Sánchez-cañete, P. Serrano-ortiz, F. Domingo, and A. Kowalski, Cave ventilation is influenced by variations in the CO???-dependent virtual temperature, International Journal of Speleology, vol.42, issue.1, pp.1-8, 2013.
DOI : 10.5038/1827-806X.42.1.1

E. P. Sánchez-cañete, C. Oyonarte, P. Serrano-ortiz, J. Curiel-yuste, O. Pérez-priego et al., Winds induce CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere and vadose zone transport in a karstic ecosystem: Dynamics of CO 2 within the vadose zone, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 2016.

S. Sanchez-moral, V. Soler, J. C. Cañaveras, E. Sanz-rubio, R. Van-grieken et al., Inorganic deterioration affecting the Altamira Cave, N Spain: quantitative approach to wall-corrosion (solutional etching) processes induced by visitors, Science of The Total Environment, vol.243, issue.244, pp.67-84, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00348-4

L. Savoy, H. Surbeck, and D. Hunkeler, Radon and CO2 as natural tracers to investigate the recharge dynamics of karst aquifers, Journal of Hydrology, vol.406, issue.3-4, pp.148-157, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.05.031

H. Schoeller, Etude géologique, hydrogéologique et climatologique de la grotte de Lascaux pendant le cycle 1945-1965. Gif-sur-Yvette: Ministère de l'Education Nationale centre de recherches hydrobiologiques Gif-sur-Yvette, 1965.

D. Scholz, C. Muhlinghaus, and A. Mangini, Modelling ? 13 C and ? 18 O in the solution layer on stalagmite surfaces, 2009.

J. Simunek and D. Suarez, Modeling of carbon dioxide transport and production in soil: 1. Model development, Water Resources Research, vol.9, issue.5, pp.487-497, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/92WR02225

P. L. Smart and H. Friederich, Water movement and storage in the unsaturated zone of a maturely karstified carbonate Environmental problems in karst terranes and their solution conference, pp.59-87, 1986.

C. Spötl, I. J. Fairchild, and A. F. Tooth, Cave air control on dripwater geochemistry, Obir Caves (Austria): Implications for speleothem deposition in dynamically ventilated caves, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.69, issue.10, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2004.12.009

J. Stenström, K. Svensson, and M. Johansson, Reversible transition between active and dormant microbial states in soil, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.36, issue.2-3, pp.93-104, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-6496(01)00122-2

J. D. Strickland and T. R. Parsons, A practical handbook of seawater analysis, 1972.

U. Svensson and W. Dreybrodt, Dissolution kinetics of natural calcite minerals in CO2-water systems approaching calcite equilibrium, Chemical Geology, vol.100, issue.1-2, pp.129-145, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-2541(92)90106-F

G. Tissier, Y. Perrette, M. Dzikowski, J. Poulenard, F. Hobléa et al., Seasonal changes of organic matter quality and quantity at the outlet of a forested karst system (La Roche Saint Alban, French Alps), Journal of Hydrology, vol.482, pp.139-148, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.045

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00782135

E. M. Thurman, Amount of Organic Carbon in Natural Waters, Organic geochemistry of natural waters, pp.7-65, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-5095-5_2

B. Tr?ek, How can the epikarst zone influence the karst aquifer hydraulic behaviour?, Environmental Geology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.761-765, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00254-006-0387-x

D. M. Tremaine, P. N. Froelich, and Y. Wang, Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: modern calibration of ? 18 O and ? 13 C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored natural cave system, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, issue.17, pp.75-4929, 2011.

J. W. Troester and &. W. White, Seasonal Fluctuations in the Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure in a Cave Atmosphere, Water Resources Research, vol.13, issue.4, pp.153-156, 1984.
DOI : 10.1029/WR020i001p00153

R. Vargas and M. F. Allen, Environmental controls and the influence of vegetation type, fine roots and rhizomorphs on diel and seasonal variation in soil respiration, New Phytologist, vol.18, issue.2, pp.460-471, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02481.x

J. M. Vías, B. Andreo, M. J. Perles, F. Carrasco, I. Vadillo et al., Proposed method for groundwater vulnerability mapping in carbonate (karstic) aquifers: the COP method, Hydrogeology Journal, vol.47, issue.3, pp.14-912, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s10040-006-0023-6

D. J. Vesper and W. B. White, Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, Hydrogeology Journal, vol.12, issue.2, pp.135-143, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s10040-003-0299-8

J. Vouve, Colline de Lascaux (commune de Montignac) Détermination d'un modèle karstique original en pays calcaire. Comptes Rendus de l, Académie des Sciences, vol.266, pp.2139-2142, 1968.

M. A. Walvoord, R. G. Striegl, D. E. Prudic, and D. A. Stonestrom, CO2 dynamics in the Amargosa Desert: Fluxes and isotopic speciation in a deep unsaturated zone, Water resources research, 2005.

D. A. Wardle and P. Lavelle, Linkages between soil biota, plant litter quality and decomposition Driven by nature: plant litter quality and decomposition, pp.107-124, 1997.

R. H. Waring and W. H. Schlesinger, Forest ecosystems. Concepts and management, 1985.

L. Wassenaar and R. Aravena, Radiocarbon in Dissolved Organic Carbon, A Possible Groundwater Dating Method: Case Studies From Western Canada, Water Resources Research, vol.42, issue.4, pp.1975-1986, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/91WR00504

N. Weisbrod, M. I. Dragila, U. Nachshon, and M. Pillersdorf, Falling through the cracks: The role of fractures in Earth-atmosphere gas exchange, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.162, issue.2, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/2008GL036096

W. B. White, Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains (No. 551, pp.447-451, 1988.

P. W. Williams, The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, Journal of Hydrology, vol.61, issue.1-3, pp.45-67, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-1694(83)90234-2

P. W. Williams, The role of the epikarst in karst and cave hydrogeology: a review, International Journal of Speleology, vol.37, issue.1, 2008.
DOI : 10.5038/1827-806X.37.1.1

W. W. Wood and M. J. Petraitis, Origin and Distribution of Carbon Dioxide in the Unsaturated Zone of the Southern High Plains of Texas, Water Resources Research, vol.7, issue.89, pp.1193-1208, 1984.
DOI : 10.1029/WR020i009p01193

J. Zelinka, Microclimatic research in the Slovakian show caves, Acta Carsologica, vol.31, issue.1, pp.151-163, 2002.

X. Zhou, S. Wan, and Y. Luo, Source components and interannual variability of soil CO2 efflux under experimental warming and clipping in a grassland ecosystem, Global Change Biology, vol.13, issue.4, pp.761-775, 2007.

. Figure-a-10, Vitesses des écoulements d'air dans la Grande Diaclase de la Grotte de Lascaux au 31/05/2013 (thermoconvections) Sont visibles de gauche à droite, l'Abside, le Puits du Sorcier