Performances et méthodes pour l'échantillonnage comprimé : Robustesse à la méconnaissance du dictionnaire et optimisation du noyau d'échantillonnage.

Abstract : In this thesis, we are interested in two different low rate sampling schemes that challenge Shannon’s theory: the sampling of finite rate of innovation signals and compressed sensing.Recently it has been shown that using appropriate sampling kernel, finite rate of innovation signals can be perfectly sampled even though they are non-bandlimited. In the presence of noise, reconstruction is achieved by a model-based estimation procedure. In this thesis, we consider the estimation of the amplitudes and delays of a finite stream of Dirac pulses using an arbitrary kernel and the estimation of a finite stream of arbitrary pulses using the Sum of Sincs (SoS) kernel. In both scenarios, we derive the Bayesian Cramér-Rao Bound (BCRB) for the parameters of interest. The SoS kernel is an interesting kernel since it is totally configurable by a vector of weights. In the first scenario, based on convex optimization tools, we propose a new kernel minimizing the BCRB on the delays, while in the second scenario we propose a family of kernels which maximizes the Bayesian Fisher Information, i.e., the total amount of information about each of the parameter in the measures. The advantage of the proposed family is that it can be user-adjusted to favor either of the estimated parameters.Compressed sensing is a promising emerging domain which outperforms the classical limit of the Shannon sampling theory if the measurement vector can be approximated as the linear combination of few basis vectors extracted from a redundant dictionary matrix. Unfortunately, in realistic scenario, the knowledge of this basis or equivalently of the entire dictionary is often uncertain, i.e. corrupted by a Basis Mismatch (BM) error. The related estimation problem is based on the matching of continuous parameters of interest to a discretized parameter set over a regular grid. Generally, the parameters of interest do not lie in this grid and there exists an estimation error even at high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). This is the off-grid (OG) problem. The consequence of the BM and the OG mismatch problems is that the estimation accuracy in terms of Bayesian Mean Square Error (BMSE) of popular sparse-based estimators collapses even if the support is perfectly estimated and in the high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) regime. This saturation effect considerably limits the effective viability of these estimation schemes.In this thesis, the BCRB is derived for CS model with unstructured BM and OG. We show that even though both problems share a very close formalism, they lead to different performances. In the biased dictionary based estimation context, we propose and study analytical expressions of the Bayesian Mean Square Error (BMSE) on the estimation of the grid error at high SNR. We also show that this class of estimators is efficient and thus reaches the Bayesian Cramér-Rao Bound (BCRB) at high SNR. The proposed results are illustrated in the context of line spectra analysis for several popular sparse estimator. We also study the Expected Cramér-Rao Bound (ECRB) on the estimation of the amplitude for a small OG error and show that it follows well the behavior of practical estimators in a wide SNR range.In the context of BM and OG errors, we propose two new estimation schemes called Bias-Correction Estimator (BiCE) and Off-Grid Error Correction (OGEC) respectively and study their statistical properties in terms of theoretical bias and variances. Both estimators are essentially based on an oblique projection of the measurement vector and act as a post-processing estimation layer for any sparse-based estimator and mitigate considerably the BM (OG respectively) degradation. The proposed estimators are generic since they can be associated to any sparse-based estimator, fast, and have good statistical properties. To illustrate our results and propositions, they are applied in the challenging context of the compressive sampling of finite rate of innovation signals.
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Stéphanie Bernhardt. Performances et méthodes pour l'échantillonnage comprimé : Robustesse à la méconnaissance du dictionnaire et optimisation du noyau d'échantillonnage.. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS443⟩. ⟨tel-01462276⟩

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