Marqueurs de la dynamique des fluides associée à l'enfouissement des bassins sédimentaires : Exemples du Bassin Permien de Lodève (France) et du North Viking Graben (Mer du Nord)

Abstract : This work focus on the characterization of the source and dynamic of compactional fluids during sedimentary burial, through two complementary examples of late orogenic oil-field half-grabens: The exhumed Lodève Permian Basin and a deep buried Jurassic basin in the North Viking Graben (North Sea).Constituting the main part of the thesis, a multi-disciplinary approach was conducted in the Lodève Basin where Ba-F-Cu-Pb polymetalic mineralized systems are trapped into synrift faults and paleokarsts in the carbonate basement at the hinge point of the roll-over. The source, timing and P/T conditions of fluid migration were deduced from the analysis of the microfabric, the fluid inclusions microthermometry, and the isotopic (Sr, S, O, H) and Rare Earth Element (REE) signature. Results are then crossed with a structural and thermal modeling that consolidates the sequence and dynamics of fluid during burial.A similar approach was conducted in the North Viking Graben where fluid markers are restricted to 3D seismic and well core data. Comparable Ba-Pb-Zn veins are reported in basin margin, plugging one of the most important siliciclastic hydrocarbon reservoir in the substratum. This analysis provides additional constraints on basinal fluid behavior and allows us to propose a global dynamic model for various compositions of fluids and reservoirs.We conclude to a polyphase fluid sequence history including:(a) In the carbonate basement of the Lodève Basin, karstic paleocanyon incisions and associated cavities coupled to synrift fault, act as major drain for fluids. These structures are early affected by hypogen-sulfuric karstification in response to the interaction between bacterial oxidation of sulfides entrapped within Lower Permian blackshales and the basement oxidizing aquifer.(b) Disequilibrium compaction initiates overpressure-driven basinal fluid migration towards basin margins, characterized by temperatures around 150-180°C and salinities between 9 et 18wt%eq.NaCl. Isotopic (Sr, S, O) and REE analyses reveal that Ba-M+-rich mineralizing fluids derived mainly from buried blackshales diagenesis. External Fluids coming from the lower crust are also identified that play a key role in fluorite precipitation by the leaching of late hercynian granites (mean temperature of 250°C and salinity > 20wt%eq.NaCl).(c) During the synrift period, fluid overpressure is responsible for the periodic reactivation of fault plane according to seismic-valve process, bedded-control shearing and hydraulic brecciation at the basement-seal interface. These mechanisms induce cyclic polymetallic mineralization by the mixing between in situ formation water and deep ascending basinal fluids.(d) Thermogenic fluids expulsion starts with last basinal fluids during late burial stage. Hydrocarbons thus migrate along the same regional pathways up to the rollover crest, where they are partly rerouted by the previous mineralized baffle.(e) In the Lodève basin, post-rift exhumation of the margins led to the remobilization of synrift deposits by subaerial biochemical processes at the sulfate-methane transition. The latter results from the interaction between the still active hydrocarbon dysmigration with a playa lake sulfate-rich aquifer. Secondary low-temperature barite fronts precipitate then within basement meteoric karsts.In addition to the « source to sink » model of basinal fluids, this work provides new insights on the early plugging of hydrocarbon reservoirs and for the metallogenesis of Mississippi Valley-Type deposits.
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Dimitri Laurent. Marqueurs de la dynamique des fluides associée à l'enfouissement des bassins sédimentaires : Exemples du Bassin Permien de Lodève (France) et du North Viking Graben (Mer du Nord). Sciences de la Terre. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS170⟩. ⟨tel-01457583v2⟩

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