De l'impureté Kondo aux états liés dans les supraconducteurs

Abstract : In this thesis, I was mainly interested in the effects related to magnetic impurities in metals and superconductors.In the first chapter I will present the Kondo effect, this effect occurs when a magnetic impurity exhibits an antiferromagnetic coupling with the metal that it pollutes. The electrons then form, at a sufficiently low temperature, a cloud screening the magnetism of the impurity. The second chapter will focus on the states of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov products by magnetic impurities in a superconductor. In this case, the impurity locally breaks the superconducting order and a quantum state is created inside the gap.Some so-called topological materials may include quantum states protected at their edges against external perturbations. In the last two chapters, I will present the properties of topological superconductors and their edge states. In the third chapter I will present the different topological phases that can include a superconductor with a parameter of complex order mixing waves p and s in the presence of a Zeeman field.In the fourth and last chapter I will present a study of the states of edge that may include this type of superconductors.
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Sébastien Guissart. De l'impureté Kondo aux états liés dans les supraconducteurs. Supraconductivité [cond-mat.supr-con]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS520⟩. ⟨tel-01452663⟩

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