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Interactions libres entre enfant autiste et animal (poney et dauphin) : étude des processus en jeu dans une sensorimotricité partagée par une triple approche clinique éthologique et vidéo

Abstract : The doctoral thesis is the development of a research about the analysis of interactions among autistic children undergoing a “therapy with pony” and a “therapy with dolphin”. After a survey of the clinical and theorical aspects of autism, the specificity of the different fields of pony sensoriality, which provide this animal with sharp cenesthesic properties, are considered from an ethologic point of view. The specific aspects of the dolphin’s sensoriality are also considered. The modalities of the use of an animal in an « animal mediated therapy » are recalled, underlining the specificities of the relations between an autistic child and an animal. Here, the animal is considered as an « other subject », particularly in the field of therapy with pony.The research and therapy context is characterized by free interactions between ponies and autistic children, following and observing the spontaneous movements of ponies and autistic children. The evaluation of the autistic status of two children is achieved by means of the « CARS scale » and the « Haag scale », before and after therapy. The observations are made simultaneously from a clinical, ethological and videoscopic point of view. The observation data leads to the creation of a « Reference for a qualitative evaluation of autistic children evolutionary change with the aid of equine mediation therapy ».Counter-transferential data is analysed while debriefing after the therapy sessions, and during the observation of the sessions on video. The material situation can be described as a screen chair counter transfer, and provides a specific reflexivity to the observer. This kind of analysis of the data provides a very precise modelling of the way pony and child get in contact and interact. The actions of the autistic child can be considered as taming actions («addressing to», «seeming not so much», «changing one’s mind», «going there and back») or exploring actions of the interpersonal space between him and the pony (for example «by spitting» or by «going around»). The pony can also have a contact and interact with the child in some different ways: We try to categorize them as: «at random», «daring», «by attraction», “looking for proximity», «out of curiosity». The specificities of delphinotherapy are analysed too and show similar data.These various strategies of interactions between autistic children and pony can be considered as an exploration of the space in which a triangular relation between child, pony and therapist takes place. They can also be considered as an exploration of intentionality. These different approach strategies enable to see the transition from a shared and quieting sensori-motricity to a (re)discovered inter-subjectivity, within a feeling of “being safe”, allowing a space for game and easing the processes of parting and getting one’s individuality.
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Anne Lorin de Reure. Interactions libres entre enfant autiste et animal (poney et dauphin) : étude des processus en jeu dans une sensorimotricité partagée par une triple approche clinique éthologique et vidéo. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE2099⟩. ⟨tel-01450867⟩

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