Nanorhéologie de fluides complexes aux interfaces

Abstract : Liquids confined present many fascinating behaviors very different from those observed in their volume. Confinement can induce a shift in the balance of phases (eg the liquid-vapor transition, also called capillary condensation), it can change the glass transition temperature of the polymer, or impose order on the molecular arrangement of fluid. The changes in the mechanical properties of liquid interfaces are particularly important in applications. However the level of understanding, the simple case of Newtonian liquids is still controversial, with one hand, numerical simulations show that the viscosity should not be changed for some higher molecular sizes containment, and secondly non-unanimous experiences, sometimes showing qualitative changes in rheological properties under confinement. Recently we have shown that the methods of hydrodynamic impedance sphere-plane geometry is a privileged, non-intrusive method and unambiguous, to discuss the mechanics of nano-liquid interfaces (1,2). As interphase, ie fluid layers whose properties are modified by the proximity of a solid, it is possible to accede their contactless module, so without the disturbance caused by a second surface.S As regards the effect of confinement on the rheology, we have shown that the elastic deformation across the pico meter of confining surfaces, gives a strong modification beyond apparent rheology of the fluid, even in the absence of any intrinsic effect. The thesis aims to implement the hydrodynamic impedance methods to study the rheology of polymer solutions confined. We specifically consider two models of fundamental importance as well as practical systems: brushes grafted polymer whose mechanical properties are an issue in lubrication applications as well as for biological flows and solutions of water-soluble polymers interest in enhanced oil recovery, in order to understand the effects of thinning containment and to distinguish between changes in viscosity and depletion layer induced by the flow. At the instrumental level, one of the challenges of the thesis is to implement the hydrodynamic impedance measurements on two complementary instruments at the level of the probe: the measuring dynamic power (SFA) of Liphy, and AFM interferometric detection developed at the Institut Néel. These different scales of investigation will help to clarify the medium average mechanical properties of liquids confined and their gradients near the wall. A view of work will be to look mechanical and rheological properties of polymer brushes intrinsic determined directly on SFA or AFM with their functional properties: lubricating properties of sliding contacts, or modification of the flow in microchannels. This will continue on the implementation by Lionel Bureau Liphy experimental platform: SFA friction advised biomimetic micro-fluidic systems (walls functionalized polymer brushes). The challenge will be to understand how the mechanical and rheological properties of brushes determine those systems in which they operate.
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Chloé Barraud. Nanorhéologie de fluides complexes aux interfaces. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAY011⟩. ⟨tel-01449906⟩

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