Microfluidique papier : de la physique des écoulements au diagnostic du virus Ebola en Guinée

Abstract : Paper properties – such as capillary pump, affordability and availability – made it suitable for medical diagnostics in logistic and economic field constraints. Upstream of application, we studied liquid flows in wax-confined geometries. Hydrodynamic focus coupled to evaporation creates a concentrator effect reaching an amplification factor of 1000. Diagnosis continuity from the point of care to testing laboratory is insured thanks to hybrid paper-microsystem devices. In this thesis, the elution of dried samples in paper is quantified and its compatibility with various microfluidic functions demonstrated. We were interested in two diagnostics application: detection of a cardiac biomarker by immunoassay and of Ebola virus by nucleic acids amplification (RT-RPA). With simple paper devices and a colorimetric signal, Troponin has been detected until a concentration of 1 ng/mL. Early diagnostics of infectious diseases is made possible with molecular biology on paper. After laboratory preliminary developments on synthetic RNA strains, experiments performed in Guinea with clinical samples, from ready to use papers, with carry-on equipments achieved a sensitivity of 85.3%. Multiplexed diagnostics is obtained in multilayered geometries enabling simultaneous tests and controls. Finally, application to other pathogens, like HIV and Dengue, showed paper limits from its uncontrolled bio-chemical environment.
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Laura Magro. Microfluidique papier : de la physique des écoulements au diagnostic du virus Ebola en Guinée. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066281⟩. ⟨tel-01449347⟩

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