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Le patrimoine martyr et la restauration post bellica : théories et pratiques de la restauration des monuments historiques en Europe pendant et après la Seconde Guerre mondiale

Abstract : Restoration of historical monuments after 1945 is based on the acceptance or the rejection of the drama of loss. I identified for major periods of restoration in Europe after WWII : 1939-1945; 1946-1972 ; 1973-1989 ; 1990-2015. In France, as opposed to Germany or Italy, historiography in architecture still does not deal much with the history of restoration post-bellica, ie with historical monuments destroyed during WWII and progressively restored afterwards. The historiographical task at hand is to study within different contexts (Germany, France, Italy, ex-Yugoslavia, etc) the practices of restoration once peace is back, ie the architectural intervention on the ruins produced by war. Although ferments of restoration (for both works of art and architecture) can be identified, in the current sense of the term, as early as the 1930’s, the discipline is going to mature under the impetus of the immense workshop of post-bellica restoration. Methods, techniques and theories, still valid today, are then produced and applied. My suggestion is that such a workshop can be considered as an European lab within which a kind of "invisible college" is at work, centered around a few major international experts. Architects, historians of art, superintendents, archeologists, natural and social scientists share their experiences and points of view. Research laboratories, universities, museums, churches, international organizations are involved from all over Europe. But Italy is at the heart of the « invisible college ». I have organized the analysis of the post bellica restoration around the question of "lacunes" (deficiency, gaps; shortcomings), first from a theoretical point of view. Then I imagined a new way, a typology of architectural shortcomings in order to explain a practical point of view and constructive comes after the repair or "reintegration of lacune (gap)". I identified different families of "lacune" (gaps) affecting older buildings caught in the war. It’s then possible to speak about "lacune" at different scales and regardless of the type of hit artefact. I wanted to guide the reader through the maze of post bellica restoration, with the "lacune" used as a red string. The hole or the fall of a fragment of plaster in a mural painting, the impact of machine gun in a stone facade, falling arches and a church structures, fractures in the rhythmic span of a facade the complete collapse of the nave and the apse of a church, the destruction of the urban fabric around a monument and the demolition of an old stone bridge are all shortcomings that make us react. That's faces these shortcomings, different each time, what post bellica restoration thought martyr heritage, subject of this thesis.
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Nicolas Detry. Le patrimoine martyr et la restauration post bellica : théories et pratiques de la restauration des monuments historiques en Europe pendant et après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE2120⟩. ⟨tel-01449106⟩

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