Etudes numérique et expérimentale des phénomènes de propagation d'un incendie le long d'une façade

Abstract : In order to enhance the energy efficiency of buildings, the facades are becoming more sophisticated in both their configurations and compositions. However, the amount of fuel of these new facades is much higher than that of traditional facades. Therefore, the risk of fire spread through the facade is more important. Thus, the objective of this work is to model the fire development inside and outside of a building, taking into account different configurations and facade compositions. This experimental and numerical research has identified the parameters that increase or decrease the risk of fire spread via the façade. First, after verifying the capacity of the FDS code to model the parietal flames, a numerical study that examines the influence of the geometry of a facade fire spread was completed. Indeed, the various phenomena related to openings dimensions and / or configurations of the façade have been identified. It was therefore possible to analyze their influence on the risk of fire spread along the façade using quantities such as the heat released outside the building, the flame height and thermal actions (temperature, fluxes). Among the configurations studied are contained more or less complex geometries that can be encountered on the buildings. For example, multiple openings or "U" configurations were investigated in order to study the influence of the chimney effect on the extension of flames. Indeed, this type of configuration has already been the cause of the rapid spread fire through walls regardless of their compositions. Subsequently, an experimental study on fire spread along a combustible wall was realized with two goals. First, a series of tests was performed in order to observe propagation phenomena on a combustible façade and to collect experimental data to validate propagation models and numerical simulations in this situation. Secondly, another experimental campaign was used to study the influence of the presence of a ventilation air gap between the cladding and the wall on the spread of fire. This latter is widely used in the construction of facades. This research, both academic and applicative, has provided new information on the fire development and fire behavior along a façade, combustible or not. The numerical results demonstrate the various parameters governing the development of a fire along a façade, which facilitates the understanding of phenomena related to this issue. In addition, various tests can be used as a database for the modeling of fire spread along a combustible wall. Thus, this work contributes to the development of models of fire development and spread on buildings via the façade.
Keywords : Compartment fire
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Mathieu Duny. Etudes numérique et expérimentale des phénomènes de propagation d'un incendie le long d'une façade. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ESMA0020⟩. ⟨tel-01449048⟩

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