Influence du vieillissement hydrique suer le comportement mécanique de l'interface fil/matrice dans les composites chanvre/époxy

Abstract : This study deals with the analysis of the influence of water on hemp/epoxy composites. Two resins have been used, one being 100 % petrochemical (Epolam) and the other one partially bio-based (Greenpoxy). The water absorption of the woven composites have been measured with gravimetric analyses. The results showed a Langmuir-type absorption, and depends on several parameters (type of resin, fibres and fabric, fibre ratio and thickness). DMA and DSC tests realised on resins showed the plasticizing effect of water and an irreversible modification of their properties after the water ageing. Microscopic observations of the composite at the yarn scale helped to detect that cracks between hemp fibres and epoxy matrix appear and develop right from the start of the desorption. Moreover, observations by photoelasticimetry showed an irreversible reorganisation of internal stresses due to this damage. Next, quasi-static tensile tests have been performed on woven composites and resins. The water ageing has modified the mechanical properties of the materials as well as the evolution of damage, which has been studied by acoustic emission and X-ray tomography.For a better understanding of the yarn/matrix interface behaviour, different tests have been developed with specific single yarn composites, in which the yarn is oriented at 45° or 90° in regard to the main axis of the specimen. First, nanoindentation tests have been performed, to measure the properties in situ of each component of the composites before and after water ageing. A second type of tests, based on the laser shock wave method, has been used to determine the quality of adhesion between the yarn and the resin. Finally, tensile tests on a micromachine under an optical microscope have been developed with the aim of measuring strain fields by digital image correlation. The results demonstrated that local strains are higher after a water ageing and that this phenomenon is more pronounced in the hemp/Greenpoxy than in the hemp/Epolam. The development of a finite element model led to estimate the local constitutive law of the different components of the composites and to study the evolution of the modulus after the ageing.
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Amélie Perrier. Influence du vieillissement hydrique suer le comportement mécanique de l'interface fil/matrice dans les composites chanvre/époxy. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ESMA0019⟩. ⟨tel-01447566⟩

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