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Etude des pratiques de classe dans l’évolution du savoir et sa continuité : cas d’une séquence sur les circuits électriques en classe de 5ème

Abstract : Our work is focused on the analysis of classroom practices during a physics teaching sequence on electrical circuits in 7th grade. We study the life of knowledge, its evolution and continuity through these practices. Our theoretical tools are largely based on the Joint Action Theory in Didactics (JATD) that allows us to describe the practices by providing tools for this description especially the concept of the learning games. We first study the effects of classroom practices on the knowledge’s life, then we study the continuity of knowledge.Our analysis of classroom practices’effects on the life of knowledge is based primarily on our learning games analysis and is completed by a microscopic level analysis of facets that represent parts of a speech at the level of a sentence or an intervention on an element of knowledge. The study of the whole learning games analysed in the studied sessions allowed us to distinguish some particular learning games from the development of knowledge perspective. The study of these games allowed us to show the influence of the actions of the teacher and students on the evolution of knowledge. A comparison with what was planned by the teacher according to the proposals of the designers of the sequence shows two cases of development according to the way the teacher takes into considerationthe actual activity of the students. In one case there is an enlargement and densification of knowledge about a concept, elements of knowledge are introduced in consistency and continuity with those already introduced. In the other case there is dispersion of knowledge elements around a concept, elements of knowledge introduced has no or little connection with the knowledge at stake.In our study we consider that the continuity of knowledge is established through links between elements of knowledge, methods, procedures or discussions about these elements, at different teaching moments. Thus, in order to study the continuity of knowledge, we built a methodology adapted to this definition and our data by relying on microscopic analysis of facets completed in some cases by our learning games analysis. We built categories of processing knowledge that allows to connect different elements of knowledge introduced at different teaching moments. For this purpose, we used the modelling levels as well as the epistemic tasks such as defining, interpreting, describing, comparing, etc. This analysis ha shown that the development of knowledge is mainly initiated by the experimental field and not by relations between concepts. The new concepts are introduced during the passage of a description between objects and events to a conceptualization or relationship between concepts. This introduction is often imposed and may explain discontinuity of knowledge identified in the sequence.Finally, we offer perspectives for teacher training and sequences design.
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Nada El Sowayssi. Etude des pratiques de classe dans l’évolution du savoir et sa continuité : cas d’une séquence sur les circuits électriques en classe de 5ème. Education. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE2076⟩. ⟨tel-01446864⟩

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