Organisation du réseau cortical de microtubules chez Arabidopsis thaliana : contribution des protéines EB1 et MAP65-1

Abstract : Microtubules are essential dynamic filaments of most eukaryotic cells. Microtubule network organization is tightly controlled within cells since most of microtubule functions come from their spatial arrangement. In animal cells, EB1 (End Binding-1 protein) is well known as a major regulator of microtubule network polarization. Though well conserved throughout evolution, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses three EB1 orthologous genes with unclear functions, while microtubule network orientation and organization are critical for plant development. During plant cell expansion, cortical microtubules are organized as parallel fibers that are perpendicular to the elongation axis. This particular organization is thought to promote cell elongation rather than thickening by controlling cell wall synthesis. Cortical microtubule are not isolated from each other, they are laterally associated within bundles, bringing an additional level of complexity, and therefore of regulation, to the microtubule network in plants. Microtubule bundles formation and maintenance are the main interest of this PhD-thesis work. In plants, EB1 proteins had already been involved in directional root growth, but their subcellular functions remained unclear. Our study revealed first that the cortical microtubule network is disorganized in plants lacking cytoplasmic-EB1 protein. Moreover, using super-resolution microscopy combined with an original image processing, we showed that the average number of microtubules per bundle is significantly reduced in the absence of EB1. In addition, EB1-defective roots display a hypersensitivity to medium hardness as mentioned elsewhere before. Altogether, our data suggest: (1) an involvement of the microtubule network in root response to touch; (2) a possible relationship between microtubule-network organization and bundle formation. Then, in order to confirm the functional link between bundle formation and network organization, we tackle the study of MAP65-1 mutant plants. MAP65-1 is a protein well described for its ability to make microtubule bundles in vitro. Our investigations confirmed this function for MAP65-1 in vivo and reveal its involvement in cortical microtubule network organization. Although this result does not reveal any causal connection between both phenomena, it highlights the link between the two levels of complexity that are bundle formation and spatial arrangement of microtubules. Finally, to get insight into the molecular mechanisms allowing EB1 and MAP65-1 to make microtubule bundles, we developed in vitro experiments using purified components. Preliminary results indicate that EB1 stimulates MAP65-1 ability to make bundles, but this remains to be further investigated. Hence, this thesis work contributed to decipher the mechanisms governing microtubule network organization in Arabidopsis thaliana. In particular, it revealed the involvement of EB1 proteins and MAP65-1 in this task. This work further confirmed the role of microtubules in root growth and strongly suggested their involvement in the response to mechanical sensing.
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Arthur Molines. Organisation du réseau cortical de microtubules chez Arabidopsis thaliana : contribution des protéines EB1 et MAP65-1. Biologie cellulaire. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS421⟩. ⟨tel-01446716⟩

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