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La fabrication de l’architecture en Tunisie indépendante : une rhétorique par la référence

Abstract : The high heterogeneity of the Tunisian cityscape raises important questions about the context of its emergence. A historical analysis of the country's last decades seems to be necessary towards understanding its origins. Since the State independence in 1956, several political, economical, and especially cultural evolutions have occurred. These have seemingly a great impact on the language of the contemporary architectural production.The present research focuses on the evolution of the references behind the Tunisian architecture from the independence until 2011. It mainly explores how an architecture was produced during the independent State establishment, and to what extent this architecture reflects the State's cultural policy.The main explored hypothesis concerns the impact of the interaction between the constructions initiated by the State and the architectural design on the current country's cityscape. Most of the project initiated by the independent State were built in the capital. Thus, Tunis is studied from a historical standpoint and buildings are analyzed in the triple process of architectural order, design, and communication, in order to understand the emergence circumstances of the current referential heterogeneity. A cross-reading of architecture publications highlights the different speeches that shape several imaginaries so to define contemporary Tunisian specificities, between modernity and tradition.Answering such a question implies a deep knowledge of the main State's projects during this period, but also the profiles of the different architects behind these projects design. A diverse corpus including graphical representations of the considered projects, general and specialized press publications, bank notes, stamps, and postcards, were selected for analysis. Besides its historical dimension, such a corpus enables observing the Architecture as a mean of communication from a cultural perspective.The cross-reading of this corpus brings out three types of speeches: a speech by, of, and on Architecture. The former, is observable on the official press, on the architectural representations of bank notes, on stamps and some postcards. Its analysis helped to determine the image that the State gives about its architectural realizations. The second type of speeches reflects the perception of the architect, as a designer of the Tunisian architecture. Research on graphical representations in public archives show the evolution of the architectural language. Moreover, the analysis of the diverse background of the architects, practicing during the period under study, shows the great impact of their architectural culture on the Tunisian cityscape. Finally, the last type of speech observed in specialized architectural magazines and private press, enables to extract receptions about the realized projects.References behind architectural realizations in Tunis seems to evolve together with the State evolution and the different definition of what is «Tunisian» at each moment. The study of the identified speeches led to three different imaginaries. The first is a progress imaginary, which characterizes the first decades of the independent State. It operates through an esthetic allusion following architectural inclination of great occidental metropolis. The second is a historical imaginary that emerges later and which mainly refers to a legacy architecture transformed into a protected heritage. Hence, the worship of the « medinal » architecture and recently the french protectorat legacy provide to some artefacts a status of reference for upcoming constructions. Finally, the third imaginary is syncretic and fluctuates between modernizing tradition and traditionalizing modernity towards a perfect fusion that eventually defines contemporary Tunisian architecture.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 24, 2017 - 3:57:07 PM
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Olfa Bohli Nouri. La fabrication de l’architecture en Tunisie indépendante : une rhétorique par la référence. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAH019⟩. ⟨tel-01445118⟩

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