Effet du paysage sur la structure des communautés fongiques foliaires

Abstract : Plant leaves host a large diversity of microorganisms. Among the factors shaping foliar microbial community structure, the effect of the dispersal process remain understudied. Landscape elements, such as edges or landscape heterogenity, influence migration and dispersal of many macro-organism species. However, the effect of such factors on foliar microbial communities has never been studied. We hypothesized that forests are a source of foliar fungi for adjacent vineyards. We compared foliar and airborne fungal communities in vineyard and adjacent forests along a vegetative season, we examined the effect of a forest edge on these communities in a vineyard, and weassessed the effect of landscape composition on these communities. Fungal communities were characterized with a metabarcoding method. Foliar fungal communities in vineyards and forests diverge over the course of the vegetative season. Neither the distance to the edge nor the proportion of forest in the landscape affect foliar fungal communities in vineyards, while airborne communities change with the distance to the forest edge. These results suggest that dispersal is not dominant in shaping foliar fungal communities. Instead, many selective pressures such as agricultural practices seem to shape strongly these communities. Further investigations are required in order to estimate the relative contribution of those processes, and the potential ecosystem service provided by the forest to crops.
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Thomas Fort. Effet du paysage sur la structure des communautés fongiques foliaires. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0266⟩. ⟨tel-01441448⟩

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