Evaluation in vitro et in vivo d’un polymère biorésorbable à la Gentamycine dans le traitement expérimental d’infections ostéo-articulaires

Abstract : The treatment of soft-tissue infections, osteomyelitis, and acute or chronic septic arthritis is a lengthy process that involves repeated surgical procedures and the systemic administration of antibiotics for at least 6 weeks to 3 months. Poor diffusion of antibiotics into bones and joints requires high doses given parenterally for long periods. At present, the antibiotic vector most widely used in humans with bone or joint infections is polymethylmethacrylate. Because PMMA is not bioabsorbable, multiple surgical procedures are required to eradicate infection. Furthermore, PMMA does not release its full antibiotic load over time and may yield local antibiotic concentrations lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration of the causative organism, thereby promoting the emergence of resistant strains. The objective of our work was to develop a fully bioabsorbable polymer capable of ensuring the prolonged and efficient release of its antibiotic load, thus improving the management of bone and joint infections. The specifications for the polymer included the release by the matrix system of 1-2 mg of gentamicin per day and per gram of mixture over more than 10 days. Other specifications were appropriate physical characteristics, a drug release rate sufficient to ensure optimal treatment safety, and ease of implantation. The polymer was also to be bioabsorbable, i.e., subject to degradation into fragments capable of being eliminated naturally by the body. High-molecular weight PLA50P, Poly(D,L-lactic acid) was created and found to meet these specifications. Use of this polymer as large particles (0.5 to 1 mm) limited the initial burst phenomenon. A gentamicin-PLA50P mixture was obtained by compression of the two components prepared in powder form. The antibiotic load was set at 20% to limit the initial burst. The polymer can be sterilized by gamma irradiation, which has no effect on drug release characteristics.In vitro kinetic studies of gentamicin release by the polymer showed a peak on day 12 followed by a plateau that lasted until day 63. After 3 weeks, the cumulative amount of gentamicin released in vitro was 54% of the total amount loaded onto the polymer. In vivo gentamicin concentrations measured in situ were 5.1 µg/mL on day 3, 1.9 µg/mL on day 7, and 0 µg/mL on day 35, when the polymer was no longer visible to the naked eye. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro, gentamicin was released in concentrations greater than the MIC of the microorganism, for longer than 3 weeks.To test the gentamicin-loaded polymer, we created a rat model of periosteal infection. Rats aged 10-12 weeks received two 100 mL injections of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus collected from animals, into the middle third of the hind leg, in contact with the bone. Treatment with gentamicin-loaded PLA50P proved superior over parenteral administration of an equivalent gentamicin dose, consistently reverting the bacteriological cultures to negative. We then created a rabbit model of septic arthritis. A doe weighing 4 kg received an add intraarticular injection of 1 mL of a solution containing 103 cfu/mL of a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain collected from another rabbit. Gentamicin-loaded PLA50P treatment induced a highly significant drop in the intraarticular bacterial load (by 3-4 log10), whereas standard systemic gentamicin therapy failed to significantly diminish bacterial counts comparatively to the untreated controls. Thus, gentamicin-loaded PLA50P diminished the bacterial load by 3 log10 comparatively to the other groups and allowed eradication of the infection in 2 of the 6 rabbits.In sum, gentamicin-loaded PLA50P (i) ensures the stability of the antibiotic; (ii) is available as a stable powder; (iii) ensures the prolonged release of gentamicin over several weeks; (iv) produces a limited burst effect; (v) exhibits very good biotolerance; (vi) and is more effective than standard antimicrobial therapy.
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Pierre-Sylvain Marcheix. Evaluation in vitro et in vivo d’un polymère biorésorbable à la Gentamycine dans le traitement expérimental d’infections ostéo-articulaires. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0079⟩. ⟨tel-01441442⟩

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