Pathwise decompositions of Lévy processes: applications to epidemiological modeling

Abstract : This dissertation is devoted to the study of some pathwise decompositions of spectrally positive Lévy processes, and duality relationships for certain (possibly non-Markovian) branching processes, driven by the use of the latter as probabilistic models of epidemiological dynamics. More precisely, we model the transmission tree of a disease as a splitting tree, i.e. individuals evolve independently from one another, have i.i.d. lifetimes (periods of infectiousness) that are not necessarily exponential, and give birth (secondary infections) at a constant rate during their lifetime. The incidence of the disease under this model is a Crump-Mode-Jagers process (CMJ); the overarching goal of the two first chapters is to characterize the law of this incidence process through time, jointly with the partially observed (inferred from sequence data) transmission tree. In Chapter I we obtain a description, in terms of probability generating functions, of the conditional likelihood of the number of infectious individuals at multiple times, given the transmission network linking individuals that are currently infected. In the second chapter, a more elegant version of this characterization is given, passing by a general result of invariance under time reversal for a class of branching processes. Finally, in Chapter III we are interested in the law of the (sub)critical branching process seen from its extinction time. We obtain a duality result that implies in particular the invariance under time reversal from their extinction time of the (sub)critical CMJ processes and the excursion away from 0 of the critical Feller diffusion (the width process of the continuum random tree).
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Miraine Dávila Felipe. Pathwise decompositions of Lévy processes: applications to epidemiological modeling. Probability [math.PR]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2016. English. ⟨tel-01439330⟩

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