Optimisation de réseaux de capteurs sans fil pour le suivi de cibles mobiles

Abstract : Wireless sensor networks have received a particular attention during the last years, involving many applications, such as vehicle tracking or battlefield monitoring. A set of sensors is randomly dispatched in a region in order to monitor moving targets. Each sensor has a limited battery lifetime and two states: active or inactive. An active sensor is able to monitor targets inside its sensing radius, which consumes energy. In this thesis, the studied problems consist in deciding an optimal schedule of sensing activities, in order to cover all the targets at any instant of the mission. First, we study a robust scheduling problem. A target such that the spatial trajectory is exactly known is subject to temporal uncertainties. This context is met for a plane flying in an airline route, a train running on a railway, or any vehicle following a predetermined path. The objective is to compute a schedule of activities able to resist to the largest uncertainties This first problem is solved using an exact pseudo-polynomial algorithm, relying on a dichotomy. Second, we study a problem aiming at preserving enough sensor network capacity in order to perform further missions. For this problem, the targets are subject to spatial uncertainties, i.e. their actual position may be at a distance delta of their expected position. This second problem is solved using an exact algorithm based on column generation, accelerated by a metaheuristic. All the proposed methods have a common phase, called discretization, that leads to reformulate the original problems as activity scheduling problems. The monitored area is split into faces, that are defined as sets of points covered by the same set of sensors. Computing the stay duration of targets inside each face leads to split the mission duration into time windows, so the moving target tracking problem can be seen as a sequence of static target tracking problems. The proposed algorithms are tested on many instances, and the analysis of the results is provided. Numerous open perspectives of this work are also given.
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Charly Lersteau. Optimisation de réseaux de capteurs sans fil pour le suivi de cibles mobiles. Réseaux et télécommunications [cs.NI]. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORIS412⟩. ⟨tel-01438561⟩

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