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Data center optical networks : short- and long-term solutions

Abstract : Data centers are becoming increasingly important and ubiquitous, ranging from large server farms dedicated to various tasks such as data processing, computing, data storage or the combination thereof, to small distributed server farms. The spread of cloud services is driving a relentless increase of traffic demand in datacenters, which is doubling every 12 to 15 months. Along this thesis we study the evolution of data center networks and present short- and long-term solutions for their physical intra-connection. Today, rapidly-growing traffic in data centers spotlights the urgent need for high-speed low-cost interfaces capable to cope with hungry-bandwidth demanding new applications. Thereby, in the short-term we propose novel high-datarate low-cost optical transceivers enabling up to 200 Gb/s transmission using intensity-modulation and direct-detection schemes. Several advanced pulse amplitude modulation schemes are explored while increasing speeds towards record symbol-rates, as high as 100 GBd. High-speed electrical signaling is enabled by an integrated selector-power digital-to- analog converter, capable of doubling input baud-rates while outputting advance multi-level pulse amplitude modulations. Notwithstanding, data centers’ global traffic will continue increasing incessantly. Current datacenters rely on high-radix all-electronic Ethernet switches to build an interconnecting network capable to pave with such vast amount of traffic. In such architecture, traffic growth directly relates to an increase of networking components, including switches with higher port-count, interfaces and cables. Unsustainable cost and energy consumption that can be expected in the future calls for a network reassessment. Therefore, we subsequently present a novel concept for intra-datacenter networks called burst optical slot switching (BOSS); in which servers are connected via BOSS nodes through wavelength- and time-division multiplexed fiber rings organized in a Torus topology. Along this thesis we investigate on the implementation of BOSS nodes; in particular, the switching fabric and the optical transceivers. The main element within the switching fabric is the slot blocker, which is capable of erasing any packet of any wavelength in a nanosecond time-scale. On the one hand, we explore the use of semiconductor optical amplifiers as means of gating element to be used within the slot blocker and study their cascadability. On the other hand we develop a monolithically integrated slot blocker capable of handling up to sixteen wavelength channels with dual-polarization diversity. Then we present several transceiver architectures and study their performances. Transceivers’ signaling needs to fulfill two main requirements: packet-mode operation, i.e. being capable of recovering few microsecond –long bursts; and resiliency to tight filtering, which occurs when cascading many nodes (e.g. up to 100). First we build packet-mode Nyquist-pulse-shaped N-QAM transceivers, which adapt the modulation format as a function of the number of nodes to traverse. Later we propose the use of coherent-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM). With inherent packet structure and high spectral tailoring capabilities, we demonstrate that CO-OFDM-based transceivers offer higher capacity and enhanced reach than its Nyquist counterpart. Finally, we compare our BOSS solution to today’s Folded Clos topology, and show that our BOSS architecture requires x400 fewer transponders and cables than today’s electronic switching networks, which paves the way to highly scalable and sustainable datacenters
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  • HAL Id : tel-01430673, version 1

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Miquel Angel Mestre Adrover. Data center optical networks : short- and long-term solutions. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Institut National des Télécommunications, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016TELE0022⟩. ⟨tel-01430673⟩

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