Optimisation d'un vaccin thérapeutique dans les tumeurs des voies aérodigestives supérieures associées aux papillomavirus : rôle de l'induction d'une immunité muqueuse et de la combinaison à la radiothérapie

Abstract : Cancer is the second mortality cause worldwide while mucosal cancers (lung, stomac, …) is the first mortality cause from. The majority of cancer vaccines against mucosal tumors have not given rise yet to significant clinical results. In this work we developed a strong immunotherapy based on the nontoxic subunit B from shiga toxin and showed for the first time that the localization of the immunization is crucial to induce potent and effective anti-tumoral responses. In a preclinical model a systemic immunization failed to induce a therapeutical protection against mucosal tumor challenge while intranasal immunization completely succeed. We identified a CD8 T lymphocyte population as a required cells in this protection and more precisely the T resident memory (Trm) cells. This Trm showed the classical CD103 phenotype as well as the CD49a which can play a specific role in the retention or the migration of this cells in the tumor tissue and might play a role in the survival. We also demonstrate that dendritic cells from the mucosal parenchyma was required to induce the CD49a expression on CD8 T cells while dendritic cells from the spleen was not. Our work shows that the Trm number as an impact in the anti-tumoral protection. We were able to reduce the Trm number in vivo using an anti-TGF-β antibody. This number diminution was correlated with a less efficient anti-tumoral protection. Patients with head and neck cancers are treated with radiotherapy. In this situation we showed that the combination of radiotherapy and our immunotherapy was associated with a better protection than radiotherapy alone or immunotherapy alone thanks to a vascular normalization. These results might rapidly lead to clinical trials and might open new ways to work with immunotherapies.
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Mevyn Nizard. Optimisation d'un vaccin thérapeutique dans les tumeurs des voies aérodigestives supérieures associées aux papillomavirus : rôle de l'induction d'une immunité muqueuse et de la combinaison à la radiothérapie. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB050⟩. ⟨tel-01424202⟩

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