Commutation ou extinction de l'expression du BCR et impact sur la cellule B

Abstract : After antigen recognition, B cells are activated and interact with other cells within secondarylymphoid organs (dendritic cells, T lymphocytes …) to form a germinal center. In the GC, the IgH locusis reorganized in order to increase the affinity of immunoglobulins for antigen through somatichypermutation (SHM) of V(D)J regions and to configure them into several forms harboring diversifiedmodes of action after “class switc recombination” (CSR). Both mechanisms are initiated by ActivationInduced Deaminase (AID) which targets DNA cytosines to convert them into uracil, then causing singleor double strand breaks in DNA when the mismatchs are located close to each other. It has been shownthat AID can target the IgH locus 3’ regulatory region on specific regions called LS, then leading to thetotal deletion of IgH locus C genes, loss of BCR expression and cell death by locus suicide recombination(LSR). In our study, we created a human Cμ knock-in model distal to the hs4 element of the 3’RR, in anattempt to rescue cells after the LSR event. Our model showed that this insertion indeed succeededinto replacing LSR by “class switching to humanized IgM” and also qualitatively modulated someaspects of the humoral response. This new LSR reporter model additionally supports the hypothesisthat LSR is regulated and increases with B cell activation. Studies of ex vivo B cells from the modelsuggest that LSR can occur in T dependent and independent manners, but is induced by triggering TLR4but not TLR9. Studies of the human IgM repertoire showed a biased use of VH families, and notably themouse VH5 family was used more frequently than in the control group. The BCR repertoire bias stronglysuggests that LSR is at least in part a matter of affinity of the BCR variable regions for antigens andligands that remain to be characterized.
Keywords : B cell AID LSR Apoptosis
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Theses
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Nicolas Denis-Lagache. Commutation ou extinction de l'expression du BCR et impact sur la cellule B. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIMO0071⟩. ⟨tel-01423873⟩

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