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Traitement combiné de polluants atmosphériques par filtration et adsorption pour limiter leur transfert dans l'habitat urbain

Abstract : The development of low energy buildings, which are more and more hermetic, leads to the necessity of indoor air renewal with mechanical ventilation system. However, the concentration of pollutants in urban environments increases continually, which promotes the pollutant transfer from the outdoor to the indoor air. This PhD thesis consists in the study of processes for the combined purification of the main urban outdoor air pollutants coming in individual dwellings through the ventilation systems.Out of a state of the art of the air pollutants, the ventilation systems and the treatment processes, filtration with fibrous media and adsorption were the two processes chosen to treat the urban air characterized by PM₁₀, PM₂ ₅, microbialaerosol, BTEX and NOₓ. A methodology was setup to select, through the different studied materials and with some performance criterion, the most suitable treatment solution i.e. a combined-F7 filter with glass fiber and granular activated carbon. A daily heating strategy of the combined-F7 filter at 70°C for 1h30 was proposed to partially regenerate the adsorbent in order to improve its lifetime and to limit the microbial growth on the filter, inparticular by desiccation.An experimental campaign in controlled conditions with multi-pollutant generation permitted to quantify the performances of the combined-F7 filter. The thermal treatment permitted to maintain the adsorption efficiency of the toluene at 40% and to limit the microbial proliferation. Competitions within pollutants were observed, in particular an increase of the filtration efficiency of PM₁₀ with the presence of PM₂ ₅ by promoting the cake filtration stage. Moreover the mix toluene/NO₂ leads to a decrease of the NO₂ adsorption in favor of the toluene.Finally, an experimental campaign in realistic conditions was conducted for 3 months in particular to study the performances of the thermal treatment. Concentration levels of the pollutants in the suburban area of the study were low. The thermal treatment applied to the combined-F7 filter, with the operating conditions studied and after 3month of follow-up, permitted to significantly limit the fungal growth on the filter but it did not permit to improve significantly the VOC and NOₓ adsorption.
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Kevin Morisseau. Traitement combiné de polluants atmosphériques par filtration et adsorption pour limiter leur transfert dans l'habitat urbain. Génie des procédés. Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016EMNA0292⟩. ⟨tel-01419583⟩

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