Image de l'Afrique à travers les dessins d'actualité dans Jeune Afrique (2000-2010) : approche sémio-rhétorique

Abstract : A caricature is a drawing which belongs to the journalistic genre of comments functioning as a visual editorial. However, as a semiotic object, it has never received the analytical attention it deserves. The thesis that we are defending supports the idea that caricatures use a particular visual language distinct from other images to relay their message. To illustrate our thesis, we used caricatures published between 2000 and 2010 in the news magazine Jeune Afrique. We started from the hypothesis that these caricatures "say" something about sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in a certain way. According to the questions and objectives of our research, we sought to know the structure of the language of the caricature, the discourse strategies the caricatures employed to convey their message, the thematic issues they addressed and the image of SSA they portrayed. As a semiotic object, the caricature has a tabular syntactic structure composed of five components, namely the iconic figure, the plastic figure, the temporal component, paratexts and speech. The informant (cartoonist) chooses to deposit messages in one or more of these syntactic units while using appropriate and effective discourse strategies to manipulate the cognitive observer to see, know and believe in what he observes. To find the structure of the language of caricatures, we were inspired by several theoretical proposals of Group μ (1992), Töpffer (quoted by Gombrich, 1996), Genette (1987), among others. Several themes emerged, but those on electoral practices, humanitarian aid, civil war, financial corruption and moral portrait of African leaders were used as a sample. So what is the image that the caricatures in J.A. give about SSA - its territory, its people, their situation, and their leaders? Various proposals came forth from the analysis in chapters four to nine. First, it emerged that the caricatures in J.A. tell small tales that are distinct from media stories though they get inspired by them, transpose them and refer to them in order to compose their own stories. We found that each caricature from a given thematic subject chronologically fits into the next even if they are productions of different cartoonists. If the caricatures form small stories in form of plays, we can imagine each caricature as a scene and for that, each caricature characterizes its actors. The cartoonist invents a story and gives figurative and thematic roles to the actors. These actors are Africans and we, the observers, are assigned the role of spectators. In each scene, the cartoonist “takes” our minds in African countries in order to "witness" together with him what "happens" there. However, the socio-economic problems of SSA are presented as “giants” compared to "Africans". Indeed, the visual topological oppositions of visual figures reveal an opposition of differential values thus putting SSA in a position which minimizes and devalues it. The caricatures point out the problems of famine, drought, disease, corruption, war etc. that plague the civilian population. And as the problems require intervention, it happens that this intervention comes from elsewhere rather than from Africa. During this time of suffering for civilians, high civil servants are shown as engaging in financial impunity practices, seems to say the caricatures. African presidents, meanwhile, are portrayed as those that only think of staying in power. Thus, according to the cartoons, they are always focusing on looking for any means by which to remain in power. Cartoonists employ all kinds of discourse strategies to make fun of the african situation. Finally, not just one, but several bleak images of SSA emerge from the caricatures of J.A. Bleak images because a caricature is a tool for critic rather than praise. Yet, these little stories are fictional even if they are inspired by current events as told by the media.
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Nuru Koki Kyalo. Image de l'Afrique à travers les dessins d'actualité dans Jeune Afrique (2000-2010) : approche sémio-rhétorique. Linguistique. Université de Limoges; Université de Maseno (Kenya), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIMO0115⟩. ⟨tel-01418982⟩

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