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Régulations de la sécrétion et de l’activité biologique de la protéine Tat du VIH-1 : rôles de la palmitoylation et de Gag

Abstract : HIV-1 Tat is a small protein that is required for viral transcription and multiplication. It thus has a crucial role in the infected cell. It was known that Tat can be secreted despite its lack of signal sequence. In fact 2/3 of cellular Tat are exported by infected primary T-cells. The unconventional secretion of Tat relies on its interaction with phosphatidylinositol(4,5)-biphosphate or PI(4,5)P2, a lipid that is concentrated within the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and is strictly required for Tat secretion. Exogenous Tat has deleterious effects on several cell types, indicating that extracellular Tat is involved in evolution to AIDS. Consistent with this secretion efficiency, Tat is mainly localized at the plasma membrane of primary T-cells infected by HIV-1. A large fraction of Tat is resident at the membrane and we looked for a mechanism that could explain this retention and discovered that Tat is palmitoylated. Our studies show that Tat is palmitoylated, both in T-cells and also in ‘target' cells such as neurons and macrophages. Tat palmitoylation inhibits its secretion and is performed on Tat cysteine 31 (Tat has seven cyteines) by the enzyme DHHC20 using immunophilins (prolyl ismerases), Cyclophilin A (CypA) and FKPB12, as cofactors. Our results also indicate that the presence of Gag inhibits Tat palmitoylation. We believe that the export of CypA due to its encapsidation will make less CypA available for Tat, thereby inhibiting Tat palmitoylation. Indeed, HIV-1 encapsidates 250 copies of CypA/virion and the amount of CypA regulates the virulence of produced virions. In target cells, Tat is strongly palmitoylated and this modification induces its almost irreversible binding to PI(4,5)P2, preventing its secretion and allowing cumulative effect of minute Tat doses.Tat palmitoylation enables Tat to severely inhibit various PI(4,5)P2-dependent processes such as phagocytosis and neurosecretion. These effects of extracellular Tat likely contribute to the development of opportunistic infections and neurological disorders observed during AIDS.
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Christophe Chopard. Régulations de la sécrétion et de l’activité biologique de la protéine Tat du VIH-1 : rôles de la palmitoylation et de Gag. Virologie. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014MON20089⟩. ⟨tel-01417676⟩

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