Optimisation sans dérivées sous incertitudes appliquées à des simulateurs coûteux

Abstract : The modeling of complex phenomena encountered in industrial issues can lead to the study of numerical simulation codes. These simulators may require extensive execution time (from hours to days), involve uncertain parameters and even be intrinsically stochastic. Importantly within the context of simulation-based optimization, the derivatives of the outputs with respect to the inputs may be inexistent, inaccessible or too costly to approximate reasonably. This thesis is organized in four chapters. The first chapter discusses the state of the art in derivative-free optimization and uncertainty modeling. The next three chapters introduce three independent---although connected---contributions to the field of derivative-free optimization in the presence of uncertainty. The second chapter addresses the emulation of costly stochastic simulation codes---stochastic in the sense simulations run with the same input parameters may lead to distinct outputs. Such was the matter of the CODESTOCH project carried out at the Summer mathematical research center on scientific computing and its applications (CEMRACS) during the summer of 2013, together with two Ph.D. students from Electricity of France (EDF) and the Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA). We designed four methods to build emulators for functions whose values are probability density functions. These methods were tested on two toy functions and applied to industrial simulation codes concerned with three complex phenomena: the spatial distribution of molecules in a hydrocarbon system (IFPEN), the life cycle of large electric transformers (EDF) and the repercussions of a hypothetical accidental in a nuclear plant (CEA). Emulation was a preliminary process towards optimization in the first two cases. In the third chapter we consider the influence of inaccurate objective function evaluations on direct search---a classical derivative-free optimization method. In real settings inaccuracy may never vanish, however users usually apply direct search algorithms disregarding inaccuracy. We raise three questions. What precision can we hope to achieve, given the inaccuracy? How fast can this precision be attained? What stopping criteria can guarantee this precision? We answer these three questions for directional direct search applied to objective functions whose evaluation inaccuracy stochastic or not is uniformly bounded. We also derive from our results an adaptive algorithm for dealing efficiently with several oracles having different levels of accuracy. The theory and algorithm are validated with numerical tests and two industrial applications: surface minimization in mechanical design and oil well placement in reservoir engineering. The fourth chapter considers optimization problems with imprecise parameters, whose imprecision is modeled with fuzzy sets theory. A number of methods have been published to solve linear programs involving fuzzy parameters, but only a few as for nonlinear programs. We propose an algorithm to address a large class of fuzzy optimization problems by iterative non-dominated sorting. The distributions of the fuzzy parameters are assumed only partially known. We also provide a criterion to assess the precision of the solutions and make comparisons with other methods found in the literature. We show that our algorithm guarantees solutions whose level of precision at least equals the precision on the available data.
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Benoît Pauwels. Optimisation sans dérivées sous incertitudes appliquées à des simulateurs coûteux. Optimisation et contrôle [math.OC]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30035⟩. ⟨tel-01416333⟩

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