E. A. Adam, Compressed Stabilized earth Block Manufacturing in Sudan -UNESCO - Technical Note No, 2001.

E. A. Adam and P. J. Jones, Thermophysical properties of stabilised soil building blocks, Building and Environment, vol.30, issue.2, pp.245-253, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0360-1323(94)00041-P

D. Allinson and M. R. Hall, Investigating the optimisation of stabilised rammed earth materials for passive air conditioning in buildings, Proceedings of ISES 2007, 2007.

D. Allinson and M. R. Hall, Hygrothermal analysis of a stabilised rammed earth test building in the UK, Energy and Buildings, vol.42, issue.6, pp.845-852, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.12.005

D. Allinson and M. R. Hall, Humidity buffering using stabilised rammed earth materials, Proceedings of the ICE -Construction Materials, pp.1-10, 2011.
DOI : 10.1680/coma.11.00023

P. J. Arnold, Thermal conductivity of masonry materials. The Journal of the Institution of Heating and Ventilating Engineers 37, pp.101-108, 1969.

J. E. Aubert and M. Gasc-barbier, Hardening of clayey soil blocks during freezing and thawing cycles, Applied Clay Science, vol.65, issue.66, pp.65-66, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clay.2012.04.014

G. A. Azeredo and . De, Mise au point de procédures d'essais mécaniques sur mortiers de terre : application à l, 2005.

E. P. Barrett, L. G. Joyner, and P. P. Halenda, The Determination of Pore Volume and Area Distributions in Porous Substances. I. Computations from Nitrogen Isotherms, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.73, issue.1, pp.373-380, 1951.
DOI : 10.1021/ja01145a126

J. Barthel, H. Hetzenauer, and R. Buchner, Dielectric relaxation of aqueous electrolyte solutions. I. Solvent relaxation of 1:2, 2:1, and 2:2 electrolyte solutions, Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie physikalische Chemie 96, pp.1424-1432, 1992.
DOI : 10.1002/bbpc.19920960807

J. Bear, Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, Soil Science, vol.120, issue.2, 1972.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-197508000-00022

M. Bittelli, F. Salvatorelli, and P. R. Pisa, Correction of TDR-based soil water content measurements in conductive soils, Geoderma, vol.143, issue.1-2, pp.133-142, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.10.022

J. H. Blackwell, A Transient???Flow Method for Determination of Thermal Constants of Insulating Materials in Bulk Part I???Theory, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.25, issue.2, pp.137-144, 1954.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1721592

C. Boutin, Thermal conductivity of autoclaved aerated concrete: modelling by the self-conslstent method, Materials and Structures, vol.8, issue.6, pp.609-615, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02485968

R. H. Brooks and A. T. Corey, Hydraulic properties of porous media, 1964.

S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett, and E. Teller, Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.60, issue.2, pp.309-319, 1938.
DOI : 10.1021/ja01269a023

. Bs-5250, British standard Code of practice for control of condensation in buildings, 1989.

Q. B. Bui, Stabilité des structures en pisé: durabilité, caractéristiques mécaniques - Thèse de doctorat, Institut National des Sciences appliquées, 2008.

Q. B. Bui, J. C. Morel, S. Hans, and N. Meunier, Compression behaviour of non-industrial materials in civil engineering by three scale experiments: the case of rammed earth, Materials and Structures, vol.27, issue.3, pp.1101-1116, 2009.
DOI : 10.1617/s11527-008-9446-y

G. S. Campbell and R. Y. Anderson, Evaluation of simple transmission line oscillators for soil moisture measurement, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol.20, issue.1, pp.31-44, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-1699(98)00006-4

J. E. Campbell, Dielectric Properties and Influence of Conductivity in Soils at One to Fifty Megahertz, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.54, issue.2, pp.332-341, 1990.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1990.03615995005400020006x

S. P. Casey, M. R. Hall, S. C. Tsang, and M. A. Khan, Energetic and hygrothermal analysis of a nano-structured material for rapid-response humidity buffering in closed environments, Building and Environment, vol.60, pp.24-36, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.11.007

J. C. Castel, Contributions à la détermination des caractéristiques thermophysiques des matériaux de génie civil -Thèse de docteur-ingénieur, 1978.

A. Catenaccio, Y. Daruich, and C. Magallanes, Temperature dependence of the permittivity of water, Chemical Physics Letters, vol.367, issue.5-6, pp.669-671, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0009-2614(02)01735-9

R. ?erny, Time-domain reflectometry method and its application for measuring moisture content in porous materials: A review, Measurement, vol.42, issue.3, pp.329-336, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.measurement.2008.08.011

P. A. Chabriac, A. Fabbri, J. C. Morel, J. P. Laurent, and J. Blanc-gonnet, A Procedure to Measure the in-Situ Hygrothermal Behavior of Earth Walls, Materials, vol.7, issue.4, pp.3002-3020, 2014.
DOI : 10.3390/ma7043002

F. Collet, Caractérisation hydrique et thermique de matériaux de génie civil à faibles impacts environnementaux, Thèse de doctorat, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, 2004.

B. Contet, Caractérisation du comportement hygrothermique du pisé -Mémoire de Travail de Fin d'Etudes, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, 2012.

P. Cosenza and A. Tabbagh, Electromagnetic determination of clay water content: role of the microporosity, Applied Clay Science, vol.26, issue.1-4, pp.21-36, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clay.2003.09.011

R. A. Crane and R. J. Vachon, A prediction of the bounds on the effective thermal conductivity of granular materials, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.20, issue.7, pp.711-723, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0017-9310(77)90169-7

A. Csicsely, Clay walls in mirror of thermal technique, PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture 2002: Design with the Environment, 2002.

J. F. Daïan, Processus de condensation et de transfert d'eau dans un matériau meso et macroporeux : étude expérimentale du mortier de ciment -Thèse de, 1986.

J. F. Daïan, Equilibre et transferts en milieux poreux -http, 2013.

D. Giovanni, A. Laurent, and M. , Une nouvelle technique d'identification de la diffusivité thermique pour la méthode flash, pp.229-237, 1986.

D. Vries and D. A. , Simultaneous transfer of heat and moisture in porous media, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.38, issue.3, pp.909-916, 1958.
DOI : 10.1029/TR039i005p00909

E. Delacre, Caractérisation thermique de matériaux poreux humides par analyse inverse dans le domaine fréquentiel -Thèse de doctorat, 2000.

M. R. Hall, Rammed earth sample production: context, recommendations and consistency, Construction and Building Materials, vol.18, issue.4, pp.281-286, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2003.11.001

M. R. Hall, Moisture ingress in rammed earth: Part 1???the effect of soil particle-size distribution on the rate of capillary suction, Construction and Building Materials, vol.18, issue.4, pp.269-280, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2003.11.002

M. R. Hall, Assessing the environmental performance of stabilised rammed earth walls using a climatic simulation chamber, Building and Environment, vol.42, issue.1, pp.139-145, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.08.017

M. R. Hall and D. Allinson, Assessing the moisture-content-dependent parameters of stabilised earth materials using the cyclic-response admittance method, Energy and Buildings, vol.40, issue.11, pp.2044-2051, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.05.009

M. R. Hall and D. Allinson, Analysis of the hygrothermal functional properties of stabilised rammed earth materials, Building and Environment, vol.44, issue.9, pp.1935-1942, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.01.007

M. R. Hall and D. Allinson, Influence of cementitious binder content on moisture transport in stabilised earth materials analysed using 1-dimensional sharp wet front theory, Building and Environment, vol.44, issue.4, pp.688-693, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.05.013

M. R. Hall and D. Allinson, Assessing the effects of soil grading on the moisture content-dependent thermal conductivity of stabilised rammed earth materials, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.29, issue.4, pp.740-747, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.03.051

M. R. Hall and D. Allinson, Transient numerical and physical modelling of temperature profile evolution in stabilised rammed earth walls, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.30, issue.5, pp.433-441, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2009.10.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00610678

M. R. Hall and Y. Djerbib, Moisture ingress in rammed earth: Part 2 ??? The effect of soil particle-size distribution on the absorption of static pressure-driven water, Construction and Building Materials, vol.20, issue.6, pp.374-383, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.035

M. R. Hall and Y. Djerbib, Moisture ingress in rammed earth: Part 3 ??? Sorptivity, surface receptiveness and surface inflow velocity, Construction and Building Materials, vol.20, issue.6, pp.384-395, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.02.004

K. Heathcote, The thermal performance of earth buildings, Informes de la Construcción, pp.117-126, 2011.

H. Hens, Modelling the heat, air, and moisture response of building envelopes: what material properties are needed, how trustful are the predictions, Journal of American Society for Testing and Materials, vol.4, 2007.

A. Holm and H. M. Künzel, Non-isothermal moisture transfer in porous building materials, 2000.

J. Huet, J. C. Castel, D. Amoros, and M. Laquerbe, Sur la d??termination de la diffusivit?? thermique et de la conductivit?? thermique des mat??riaux de construction homog??nes en r??gime transitoire, Mat??riaux et Constructions, vol.12, issue.6, pp.467-474, 1979.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02476291

K. W. Jackson and W. Z. Black, A unit cell model for predicting the thermal conductivity of a granular medium containing an adhesive binder, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.26, issue.1, pp.87-99, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/S0017-9310(83)80011-8

Y. Jannot, Théorie et pratique de la métrologie thermique, 2011.

Y. Jannot and Z. Acem, A quadrupolar complete model of the hot disc, Measurement Science and Technology, vol.18, issue.5, pp.1229-1234, 2007.
DOI : 10.1088/0957-0233/18/5/009

U. Kaatze, The dielectric properties of water in its different states of interaction, Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol.98, issue.11, pp.1049-1112, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02768829

A. Kalboussi, Transfert de chaleur en régime stationnaire et dynamique à travers les milieux poreux humides non saturés -Thèse de doctorat, 1990.

T. J. Kelleners, M. S. Seyfried, J. M. Blonquist, J. Bilskie, and D. G. Chandler, Improved Interpretation of Water Content Reflectometer Measurements in Soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.69, issue.6, p.1684, 2005.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2005.0023

M. S. Kersten, Laboratory research for the determination of the thermal properties of soils -Engineering Experimental Station, 1949.

S. Kirkpatrick, Percolation and Conduction, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.45, issue.4, pp.574-588, 1973.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.45.574

M. Krus, Moisture Transport and Storage Coefficient of Porous Mineral Building Materials -Theoritical Principles and nex test methods, 1996.

M. Krus and A. Holm, Simple method to approximate the liquid Transport coefficient describing the absorption and drying, 5th Symposium 'Building Physics in the Nordic Countries -Göteborg, pp.241-248, 1999.

M. Krus, H. M. Künzel, and K. Kiessel, Use of advanced measuring and calculative procedure for moisture assesment of building elements -Fraunhofer Institute for Building physics

H. M. Künzel, Simultaneous heat and moisture transport in building components one and two-dimensional calculation using simple parameters, 1995.

I. Langmuir, THE ADSORPTION OF GASES ON PLANE SURFACES OF GLASS, MICA AND PLATINUM., Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.40, issue.9, pp.1361-1403, 1918.
DOI : 10.1021/ja02242a004

S. Larbi, Quelques aspects de la physique des transferts en milieu poreux lors d'un processus d'humidification par condensation -Thèse de doctorat, 1990.

J. P. Laurent, Contribution à la caractérisation thermique des milieux poreux granulaires -Thèse de doctorat, 1986.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 2001.

S. Liuzzi, M. R. Hall, P. Stefanizzi, and S. P. Casey, Hygrothermal behaviour and relative humidity buffering of unfired and hydrated lime-stabilised clay composites in a Mediterranean climate, Building and Environment, vol.61, pp.82-92, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.12.006

A. J. Lohonyai and Y. Korany, Comparison of building enclosures designed to the minimum requirements of the 2011 NECB, Energy and Buildings, vol.66, pp.143-153, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.024

G. Lotti and S. Mecca, Terra Europea -Earthern Architecture in the European, 2011.

A. V. Luikov, Heat and mass transfer in capillary-porous bodies, translation of Teoreticheskie osnovy stroitel'no? teplofiziki, pp.515-519, 1966.

A. V. Luikov, Systems of differential equations of heat and mass transfer in capillary-porous bodies (review), International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.18, issue.1, pp.1-14, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0017-9310(75)90002-2

M. A. Malicky, R. Plagge, and C. H. Roth, Improving the calibration of dielectric TDR soil moisture determination taking into account the solid soil, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.15, issue.3, pp.357-366, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00136348

V. Maniatidis and P. Walker, A Review of Rammed Earth Construction -Dti Partners in Innovation Project Developing Rammed Earth for UK Housing, 2003.

F. Mcgregor, A. Heath, E. Fodde, and A. Shea, Conditions affecting the moisture buffering measurement performed on compressed earth blocks, Building and Environment, vol.75, pp.11-18, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.01.009

L. Merouani, Phénomène de sorption et de transfert d'humidité dans les bâtiments. Etude expérimentale comparative d'un mortier de ciment et d'un enduit de façade - Thèse de doctorat, 1987.

N. Meunier, Echanges transdisciplinaires sur les constructions en terre crue, ARCHITERRE, 2003.

. Ministère-de-la-culture-et-de-la-communication, Manuel de sensibilisation à la restauration de la maçonnerie, 2006.

G. Minke, Earth Construction Handbook -The building material earth in modern architecture, 2000.

J. C. Morel, A. Mesbah, M. Oggero, and P. Walker, Building houses with local materials: means to drastically reduce the environmental impact of construction, Building and Environment, vol.36, issue.10, pp.1119-1126, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0360-1323(00)00054-8

N. Mortensen, The naturally air conditioned house -Sharing Sustainable Solutions, 2008.

T. Morton, F. Stevenson, B. Taylor, and N. C. Smith, Low cost earth brick construction - Partners in Innovation Research Project final report, 2005.

Y. Mualem, A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media, Water Resources Research, vol.12, issue.4, pp.513-522, 1976.
DOI : 10.1029/WR012i003p00513

K. Noborio, Measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity by time domain reflectometry: a review, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol.31, issue.3, pp.213-237, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-1699(00)00184-8

O. 'brien, J. J. Oberbauer, and S. F. , An inexpensive, portable meter for measuring soil moisture, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.65, issue.4, pp.1081-1083, 2001.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2001.6541081x

W. Obeid, Modélisation du couplage thermo-hygro-mécanique en milieux poreux non saturés -Thèse de doctorat, 1998.

J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, and J. Bai, Design thermal values for unfired clay bricks, Materials & Design, vol.31, issue.1, pp.104-112, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.07.011

P. Kla and A. , Caractérisation en compression simple des Blocs de Terre Comprimée (BTC) : application aux maçonneries " BTC-mortier de terre, Thèse de doctorat, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, 2002.

Z. Pasztory, P. N. Peralta, S. Molnar, and I. Peszlen, Modeling the hygrothermal performance of selected North American and comparable European wood-frame house walls, Energy and Buildings, vol.49, pp.142-147, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.02.003

W. L. Paul and P. Taylor, A comparison of occupant comfort and satisfaction between a green building and a conventional building, Building and Environment, vol.43, issue.11, pp.1858-1870, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.11.006

J. R. Philip and D. A. De-vries, Moisture movement in porous materials under temperature gradients, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.73, issue.2, pp.222-232, 1957.
DOI : 10.1029/TR038i002p00222

B. Pignal, Terre crue -Techniques de construction et de restauration, Eyrolles, 2005.

P. Prelovsek and B. Uran, Generalised hot wire method for thermal conductivity measurements, Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, vol.17, issue.8, pp.674-677, 1984.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3735/17/8/012

I. Pritchett, The modern face of lime, pp.62-63, 2004.

D. Quénard, Adsorption et transfert d'humidité dans les matériaux hygroscopiques : approches du type percolation et expérimentation -Thèse de doctorat, 1989.

J. B. Rondelet, Traité théorique et pratique de l'art de bâtir (Tome 1), 1817.

L. Soudani, Modélisation hygrothermique de murs en pisé -Mémoire de Travail de Fin d'Etudes, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, 2013.

P. Taylor, R. J. Fuller, and M. B. Luther, Energy use and thermal comfort in a rammed earth office building, Energy and Buildings, vol.40, issue.5, pp.793-800, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.05.013

G. C. Topp, J. L. Davis, and A. P. Annan, Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: Measurements in coaxial transmission lines, Water Resources Research, vol.16, issue.2, pp.574-582, 1980.
DOI : 10.1029/WR016i003p00574

H. Van-damme, L'eau et sa représentation, Mécanique Des Sols Non Saturés. Hermès, pp.23-68, 2002.

M. T. Van-genuchten, A Closed-form Equation for Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils1, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.44, issue.5, pp.892-898, 1980.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400050002x

F. Volhard, Leichtlehmbau: alter Baustoff -neue Technik, 1983.

P. Walker, R. Keable, J. Martin, and V. Maniatidis, Rammed Earth: Design and construction guidelines -Dti Partners in Innovation Project Developing Rammed Earth for UK Housing, 2004.

W. Woodside and J. H. Messmer, Thermal Conductivity of Porous Media. I. Unconsolidated Sands, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.32, issue.9, pp.1688-1706, 1961.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1728419

M. R. Wyllie and P. F. Southwick, An Experimental Investigation of the S.P. and Resistivity Phenomena in Dirty Sands, Journal of Petroleum Technology, vol.6, issue.02, pp.44-57, 1954.
DOI : 10.2118/302-G

T. Zakri, J. P. Laurent, and M. Vauclin, Theoretical evidence for `Lichtenecker's mixture formulae' based on the effective medium theory, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol.31, issue.13, pp.1589-1594, 1998.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3727/31/13/013

A. Zerwer and J. C. Santamarina, Double layers in pyrometamorphosed bentonite: index properties and complex permittivity, Applied Clay Science, vol.9, issue.4, pp.283-291, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0169-1317(94)90005-1

D. A. Zumbrunnen, R. Viskanta, and F. P. Incropera, Heat transfer through porous solids with complex internal geometries, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.29, issue.2, pp.275-284, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0017-9310(86)90234-6

. Dans-cette-annexe, on donne donc une liste (non exhaustive) des différentes valeurs de ? que l'on peut trouver dans la littérature pour des pisés stabilisés et non stabilisés en fonction de la densité sèche ou de la masse volumique. Un maximum de renseignements sera fourni quand les auteurs auront précisés la provenance des terres

L. 'objectif-est-ici-de-montrer and . Qu, il est a priori impossible de définir une valeur unique de conductivité thermique pour le pisé en général car il existe en réalité des pisés quand bien même cette valeur dépendrait d'un autre paramètre comme la densité sèche ou la masse volumique. La mesure de la conductivité thermique s

L. Objectifs-principaux-Étaient-d, instrumenter des murs en pisé durant leur fabrication en prenant en compte l'énergie de compaction, d'avoir un étalonnage des capteurs tenant compte des variations importantes de températures in situ et, d'enregistrer sur une longue période (au moins 5 ans) les conditions hydriques et thermiques dans les murs, ainsi qu'à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de l'habitation. Les résultats obtenus mettent en évidence les phénomènes de transferts thermiques et hydriques se produisant dans le pisé

. Directeur-de-thèse, DR ENTPE Composition du jury : Monika Woloszyn, rapporteur