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Theses

Mesure du comportement hygrothermique du pisé

Abstract : Massive rammed earth walls are known for their comfort of living and their ability to regulate the temperature and humidity inside buildings. The evolution of regulations – particularly the thermal ones (RT 2012) - now involves having buildings that meet stringent criteria. However, rammed earth buildings seem not to be in accordance with the references defined by these regulations. This suggests that criteria, other than the simple thermal resistance, should be taken into account to characterize the behavior of a rammed earth building. The coupled heat and mass transfers mechanisms occurring within a porous material such as rammed earth – which lead to this natural regulation – are well known empirically. However, their set scientific evidences are more difficult. The aim of the thesis was to develop a measurement chain of water and heat transfers in rammed earth, to observe and quantify them. A new rammed earth house has been studied during these three years. The thesis was then carried out in four phases: 1.Development of a measurement chain (liquid water content probes, relative humidity, temperature and heat flux sensors). Each of the sensors was modified and adapted and calibrated to resist compaction and run in a dense material and containing clay; 2.Geotechnical, hydric and thermal characterization of the material: particle size distribution, density, transfer of liquid and vapor, sorption, thermal conductivity, specific heat; 3.Testing in laboratory at wall scale in a sealed box working as double climatic chambers designed in the laboratory. Four rammed earth walls were equipped with sensors developed in phase 1; 4.Testing at a house scale: the reference house was equipped with the same sensors during construction and monitoring of transfers has been set up for at least 5 years. The main objectives were to instrument rammed earth walls during their manufacturing taking into account the compaction energy, to have a sensor calibration taking into account significant variations of in situ temperatures and record over a long period (at least 5 years) hydric and thermal conditions in the walls, as well as inside and outside the building. The obtained results demonstrate the phenomena of heat and water transfers occurring in the walls. The experimental results allow considering the development of models adapted to compacted earth.
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Contributor : Pierre-Antoine Chabriac <>
Submitted on : Saturday, December 10, 2016 - 7:31:13 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 11:01:32 AM
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Pierre-Antoine Chabriac. Mesure du comportement hygrothermique du pisé. Matériaux. ENTPE; CNRS - LTDS (UMR 5513), 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01413611⟩

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