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Interprétation structurale et équilibre mécanique : La calcul à la rupture appliqué aux chaînes d'avant-pays. Cas du Jura.

Abstract : Fold-and-thrust-belts form in a compressive geological context and represent the external part of orogens.They are composed of numerous folds and thrusts generally rooted in a shallow décollement level located in the basal part of the sedimentary cover.These belts have been studied extensively during the XX century. They have been modeled kinematically, analogically and mechanically.The mechanical aspect of deformation must be taken into account in structural geology, but yet, mechanical models remain underused by the structural geologist.The objective of this thesis is to show how to bring mechanical constraints to the study of geological structures with a mechanical theory easily usable in structural geology, the Limit Analysis.This theory represents a good compromise between the kinematic models and the finite element mechanical models, very complete but relatively complicated to use.We study here examples from the Jura fold-and-thrust belt and use the softwares Optum G2 and SLAMTec.We proceed with two different approaches.The first one is presented in the first part of this manuscript and consists in studying the past deformation.We focus on Saint-Ursanne area, in the North-East Switzerland Jura.We construct first a 2D geological cross section of the Mont Terri structure and then we extend this work in 3D by a series of cross sections that scan the whole Saint Ursanne area.These cross-sections are drawn using kinematical rules, mechanical modeling with Limit Analysis and analog sandbox modeling.We show the importance of the tectonic inheritance on the onset of structures in the studied region and we mechanically model the influence of a décollement offset due to an inherited normal fault during a subsequent compressive episode.We show that this offset represents a “fault generator” and a catching point that slows the propagation of the deformation front and furthermore controls the orientation of the structure that develops.We also show that the topography plays a major role in the establishment of geological structures.In the second part of the manuscript we follow a second approach that consists in studying the current deformation.We change of scale and study the current tectonics of the entire Jura.Our models predict that this belt, formed in thin-skin tectonics, is currently partially affected by thick-skin tectonics.The western Jura would be still affected by a thin-skin tectonics, but the basement should be involved in the deformation in the north-east Jura.However, we show that a thick-skin tectonics does not preclude the simultaneous activation of the shallower décollements contained by the sedimentary cover (Triassic evaporites, in the Jura).Practical interest of these methods is illustrated by industrial questions: the last chapter presents a study of geological cross-sections from a studied area of Nagra in the eastern Jura.We look at the current mechanical answer under compression of the proposed structural interpretations.The numerical tools used in this work have been the subject of a tutorial made during a mission at Total company.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 9, 2016 - 12:46:08 PM
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Typhaine Caër. Interprétation structurale et équilibre mécanique : La calcul à la rupture appliqué aux chaînes d'avant-pays. Cas du Jura.. Géologie appliquée. Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CERG0812⟩. ⟨tel-01413088⟩

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