Magmatologie du Piton de la Fournaise (Ile de la Réunion) : approche volcanologique, pétrologique et expérimentale

Abstract : To better understand magmatic processes associated with the evolution of La Réunion magmas, we have carried out a multi-approach study aimed at (1) simulating experimentally the feeding system of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, using a Steady State Basalt starting material and P-T-fO2-Volatiles (H2O, CO2) conditions compatible with the natural system; (2) determining crystallization sequences representative of La Réunion plutonic rocks for comparison with the experimental results and (3) constructing a volcanological, petrological and geochemical database for lavas of the Abnormal Group, to confirm the existence of Abnormal melts in the feeding system of the volcano. The discovery of glasses having chemical characteristics similar to the Abnormal Group establishes the implication of Abnormal melts in eruptive processes. However, plutonic rocks record crystallization sequences that for the most part indicate a low pressure magmatic evolution. Experiments in the pressure range 0.1 to 50 MPa satisfactorily reproduce conditions in the shallow magmatic systems and lead to petrological models and magma storage depths in agreement with geophysical data. Experiments at higher pressures demonstrate transitions in magma fractionation mechanisms in the feeding system that can explain the range of erupted compositions, but call into question the compositions of parental magmas.
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Yann-Aurélien Brugier. Magmatologie du Piton de la Fournaise (Ile de la Réunion) : approche volcanologique, pétrologique et expérimentale. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ORLE2007⟩. ⟨tel-01412706⟩

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